Medicinal Plant

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Baai

PUERARIA THUNBERGIANA (S. & Z) Benth.
Dolichos hirsutus Thunb.
Pachyrrhizus thunbergianus S. & Z.
Neustanthus chinensis Benth.

Local names: Baai (Ig.); tahaunon (Mbo.); Ke hemp (Engl.); Ke (Chinese.).

Baai is found in open grasslands and thickets and low and medium altitudes, and in Benguet it ascends to 2. 000 meters. It occurs in the Batan Islands, in Benguet, Quezon, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; and in Biliran; Banton; Negros; and Mindanao. It is also found in India to Japan southward to Malaya.

This plant is a rather coarse, climbing hairy, annual, herbaceous vine reaching a length of at least 8 meters. The leaflets are entire or slightly repand, ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with the upper surface smooth or nearly so and the lower one rather densely covered with soft, grayish hairs. The flowers, which are about 2 centimeters long are borne on axillary racemes 15 to 30 centimeters long. The calyx is hairy. The corolla is rather bright purple, with the standard 2 centimeter broad and marked with a rather large yellow spot near the base. The pods are 5 to 8 centimeters long, about 1 centimeters wide, and covered with spreading, brown hairs.

Read reports that the leaves contain glumatic acid, adenine, asparagin, butyric acid, the roots, starch.

The starch of the roots is official in the Japanese (1-3) Pharmacopoeia.

Stuart affirms that the plant is much cultivated in China and Japan, on account of both its textile fiber and its root. The root of the plant is used both as food and as medicine, although that portion which is above the ground is considered to be somewhat poisonous, having emetic properties. The former is considered to be thirst relieving, antifebrile, antiemetic, and counterpoisonous. It is prescribed for colds, fever, influenza, dysentery, snake and insects bites, and to counteract the effects of Croton oil and other poisonous drugs. Externally, it is applied to dogs bites. The seeds are prescribed for adults in cases of dysentery and alcoholic excess. The flowers are also prescribed for the latter difficulty. The leaves are applied to wounds as a styptic. The shoots are used for insufficient secretion of milk, as an application on inherent boils, and for aphthous sore mouth in children. Every part of the plant is also used in the treatment of skin rashes. Hooper says that the flowers are used as a diaphoretic and febrifuge.

 

Babara

MALVASTRUM COROMANDELINUM (Linn.) Garcke
Malva coromandilina Linn.
Malva tricuspidata R. Br.
Malva luzonica Blanco
Malva tricuspidatum A. gray

Local Names: Babara (Ilk.); gagabutan (Ilk.); kinaylumpang (Tag.); salsaluyut (Ilk.); sinaguri-babai (Sul.); takkimbaka (Ilk.); tachin-kabayo (Iv.).

Babara is a common weed in and about towns throughout the Philippines. It is probably of American origin and is now pantropic in distribution. 

This is an erect, somewhat hairy, branched, half-woody perennial, 1 meter in height or less. The leaves are oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 5 centimeters long, with blunt tip and usually rounded base, and irregularly toothed margins. The flowers are axillary and terminal. The calyx is green, and about 7 millimeters long, with lanceolate pointed lobes. The petals are yellow, and about 8 millimeters long. The fruit consist of from 8 to 12 reniform, compressed, hirsute carpels 2 to 3 millimeters long, each carpel having 3 short, straight projections.

The whole plant is made into brooms.

Guerrero, reports that the leaves are employed as a cure for carbuncles. In Mexico, Martinez reports that a decoction is used to cleanse wounds, and for dysentery.

 

Badiara

COLEUS ATROPURPUREUS Benth.
Coleus blancoi Benth.
Coleus grandifolius Blanco
Plectranthus scutellarioides Blume

Mayana is an introduced plant in the Philippines and is cultivated for ornamental purposes.  It is a native of Java (?) and is now cultivated in all warm countries.

This is an erect, branched somewhat fleshy, annual herb 1 meter high or less.  The stems are usually purplish and 4 angled.  The leaves are variously blotched or colored, usually more or less hairy, ovate, 5 to 10 centimeters long, rather coarsely toothed in the margins; and in the most common form uniformly velvety-purple.  The flowers are purplish, numerous, and borne in lax, terminal, simple or branched inflorescences 15 to 30 centimeters long.  The calyx is green, and about 2.5 millimeters long, with the upper lip ovate and the lateral lobes short and ovate, the lower one being 2-cleft.  The corolla is about 11 millimeters long.

Guerrero states that in the Philippines the pounded leaves are said to be valuable as a cure for headaches and for the healing of bruises.

Burkill and Haniff record the use of a decoction taken internally, apparently for dyspepsia and for wasting away; and also dropped into the eyes, for ophthalmia.

 

Badok

GNAPHALIUM LUTEO-ALBUM Linn.
Gnaphalium dichotomum Blanco
Gnaphalium indicum F.-Vill.
Gnaphalium multiceps Elm.
Xeranthemum staehelina Blanco

Local names: Badok (Ilk.); bunut (Ig.); tugong (If.); cudweed (Engl.).

Badok is found in Ifugao, Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet, Sub-provinces; and Cagayan, Pangasinan, and the Camarines Provinces in Luzon, in open places, chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 2,400 meters. It also occurs in India to China, Japan and Formosa, and southward to Borneo.

This is a woolly, extremely variable annual herb 10 to 40 centimeters in height. The leaves are woolly on both surfaces, linear-spatulate or oblong-spatulate, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, 0.4 to 1 centimeter wide, and blunt-tipped. The inflorescences are terminal, bearing crowded clusters of glistening, yellow heads. The involucral bracts are oblong. The achenes are tubercled or have minute curved bristles.

According to Caius the leaves are used in the Punjab as an astringent and vulnerary.

 

Bael

AEGLE MARMELOS Correa

Local names: Bael, Bengal quince, Bhel, Elephant’s apple, Maredoo (Engl.).

Bael was recently introduced into the Philippines. It is a native of Australia and is also reported in India and Ceylon.

This plant is a small, deciduous, smooth tree. The spines are straight, strong, axillary, and about 2.5 centimeters in length. The leaflets are 3 to 5, and ovate-lanceolate, the laterals one being sessile and the terminal ones long petioled. The flowers are 3 centimeters across, greenish-white, and sweetscented. The fruit is nearly spherical, and 10 to 14 centimeters in diameter. The rind is grey or yellow; and the pulp sweet, thick, aromatic, gelatinous, and orange-colored. The seeds are numerous, oblong, and flat.

Watt described some uses of the bael. A reddish brown gum obtained from the stem, and a gummy or mucous substance secreted within the cells of the fruit, and thus found around the seeds, are universally used as a cement. The mucous fluid is rubbed on the hair in place of oil by the poorer classes or is employed as soap in washing garments. The Dutch in Ceylon used formerly to prepare an essential oil (or attar) from the rind, known as Marmelle oil. A perfume is also distilled from the flowers.

The fresh, ripe fruit is eaten as an article of food by the poorer classes, more especially the aboriginal hill tribes. Other mainly consumed it as pickles or preserves or as a refreshing and mildly laxative drink or sherbet. The best preparation of bael-fruit is a marmalade made from the full-grown but still tender fruit, cut in thin slices. Bael fruit is employed in the treatment of scum in vinegar manufacture.

According to Dymock, warden and Hooper, the dry pulp is moistened with cold water yields a red liquid containing chiefly mucilage and (probably) pectin. They remark that the ripe and unripe fruit, when moistened with a solution of ferric chloride, gives a marked tannic acid reaction, strongest in those portions of the pulp next to the rind; the clear mucilage surrounding the seeds he found to have an aid reaction, to contain lime, and to give no tannin reaction. They quote Warnecke, who found 2.08 percent of ash in bael fruit, and 3.72 percent in the pulp separated from the rind. The wood has the following percentage composition: soluble potassium and sodium compounds, 0.16 percent; phosphates of calcium and iron, 0.13 percent; calcium carbonate, 2.16 percent; magnesium carbonate, 0.19 percent; silica with sand and other impurities, 0.01 percent.

The fresh leaves submitted to distillation in the usual manner and rapidly yielded one ounce of a thin volatile oil having a faint yellowish-green color, a neutral reaction, a peculiar aromatic odor, and a slightly bitter taste. It has a specific gravity of 0.835 at 32° C. and a boiling point of 175° C. Examined with of the polariscope it turned a ray of polarized light to the left (a) D=-22.87.

Chopra states that the bael contains a bitter principle and a balsamic principle resembling Balsam of Peru. Dikshit and Dutt report that the roots, leaves, and bark were found to contain mainly reducing sugars and tannin. The fruit pulp yielded, in addition to the usual substances, a body which has been named marmelosin. This considered to be one of the most important active principles of the fruit.

The dried fruit and liquid extract are official in the British Pharmacopoeia.

The root bark is use in the form of a decoction as remedy for hypochondriasis, melancholia, intermittent fever, and palpitation of the heart.

The leaves are made into a poultice and applied to inflamed parts. The fresh juice is bitter and pungent, and when diluted with water is praised as a remedy for catarrh and feverishness. A decoction of the leaves is given in asthma. The fresh juice of the leaves is given with honey as a laxative and febrifuge, and for asthmatic complaints.

A sweet-scented extract from the flowers is used as lotion for the eyes. An infusion of the flower is also used as a cooling drink.

The unripe or half-ripe is regarded as an astringent, a digestive, and stomachic, and is said to be an excellent remedy for diarrhea owing to the presence of the tannins or mucilaginous substances. It is said to be particularly useful in chronic diarrhea. The fruit is also sliced, and a confiture made from it is largely used by the Hindu physicians in the treatment of diarrheas and dysenteries.

The ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic, and cooling when made into sherbet, which is made by mixing two ounces of pulp in tree or four ounces of water or syrup. It is pleasantly laxative and a good, simple cure for dyspepsia. Bael-marmalade or aromatized confection is useful for breakfast during convalescence from chronic dysentery or diarrhea and for daily use as a preventive during cholera epidemics. It is also given to prevent the growth of piles. The fruit is prescribed in tuberculosis.

The astringent rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery; its usefulness is enchanted by combination with opium. Powder of the dried pulp is given with treacle in dysentery with griping pain in the loins and costiveness. The dose as a tonic is form 12 to 15 grains of the powdered pulp; as a febrifuge and antiscorbutic it is from 16 to 20 grains; and as a nauseant and antidysenteric it is from 20 grains to 2 drachms. Powder is more useful in acute diseases and the syrup in those which are chronic.

 

Bagasua

IPOMEA PES-CAPRAE (Linn.) Roth
Convolvulus pes-caprae Linn.
Ipomoea biloba Forsk.
Ipomoea carnosa F.-Vill.

Local names: Arodaidai (Tag., Bik.); bagasua (Tag., Bis.); balimbalim (Tag.); daloidoi (Bik.); daripai (Tag., Bik.,Bis.); kabai-kabai (Tag.); kamkamote (Ilk.); kamokamotihan (Tag.); kamigang (Tag.,Bik.); katang-katang (Tag., Bik.); lagairai (Tag., Bik.); lagilai (Bag.); lambaiong (Sul., Ilk.); palang-palang (P. Bis.); polang-polang (P. Bis.); tagarai (Tag.); vadino (Iv.); goat’s foot creeper (Engl.).

Bagasua is found on all sandy seashores throughout the Philippines and also along the margins of some lakes. It is a pantropic strand plant.

This is a wide-spreading, creeping or twining, smooth vine. The leaves are thick, shining, rounded, and 6 to 14 centimeters long, with notched or lobed tip and broad base. The flowers are borne on pedicles in the axils of the leaves and are usually as long as their stalks. The stalk is erect and bears one to six flowers, which often open one at a time. The sepals are green, elliptic, and 8 millimeters long. The corolla is purple, bell-shaped, and 5 centimeters long, with the limb 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter and slightly lobed. The capsules are smooth, ovoid, and about 1 centimeter long. The seeds are covered with hairs.

Poimoea pes-caprae is most useful as a sand blinder.

Nadkarni records that the plant contains a resin and an alkaloid. Webb quotes Christensen and Reese [Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 27 (1938) 195] who report that the leaves do not contain alkaloid, saponins, or glucoside. The extract are not antibacterial (Sstaph. Aureus). There was no noticeable pharmacological activity noted. They state that the most important constituents found were mucilage, volatile oil, complex resin, fat, phytosterol, bitter substances, and red coloring matter.

According to Guerrero the leaves are employed as an escharotic to extripate the fungoid growth of ulcers. They are also cooked and used as an antirheumatic topical.

Burkill writes that the boiled tubers, being diuretic, are said to bring relief in diseases of the bladder. Heyne states that the seeds are thought to be a good remedy for stomachache and for cramps. Drury reports that in India the leaves are boiled and applied externally as an anodyne in cases of colic, and in decoction they are used in rheumatism. Nadkarni records that a paste of the leaves is applied to boils and carbuncles.

 

Bagauak

CLERODENDRON QUADRILOCULARE (Blanco) Merr.
Clerodendrons blancoanum F.-Vill.
Clerodendron longiflorum Schauer
Clerodendron navesianum Vidal
Ligustrum quadriloculare Blanco

Local names: Bagauak (Tag.); bagauak-na-pula (Tag.); baligtarin (Tag.); baliktaran (Tag.); salinguak (Tag.); uak-uak (S. L. Bis.).

Bagauak is found in primary forest at low and medium altitudes in Benguet, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Ticao, Panay, Negros, Siargao, and Bucas Grande. It also occurs in New Guinea.

This is an erect, branched, bushy, smooth shrub or small tree 2 to 5 meters high. The leaves are oblong, 15 to 20 centimeters in length, pointed at the tip, and rounded at the base. The upper surface of the blade is green, and the lower surface usually a uniform dark purple. The cymes are terminal, panicled, and generally many-flowered. The calyx is purple, pitcherlike, about 1 centimeter long, and 5-toothed. The corolla is white or purplish, with long, slender, cylindric tube which is 6 to 8 centimeters long and about 2 millimeters in diameter; the limb is spreading, with oblong-elliptic lobes about 1.5 centimeters long. The fruit is ellipsoid, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, and purplish; the persistent calyx, which is red is 1 to 1.5 centimeters long.

Bagauak is cultivated in Manila gardens for its beautiful flowers.

According to Guerrero, in the Philippines the leaves, in topicals, are used for healing wounds, and ulcers. They are also employed in tonic baths. He adds that a decoction of the leaves taken internally, and a cataplasm applied externally are good for flatulence.

 

Bagauak na Puti

CLERODENDRON MINAHASSAE Teysm & Binn
Clerodendron blancoi Naves
Clerodendron fortunatum Blanco
Clerodendron infortunatum F.-Vill.

Local names: Amamboligan (Ilk.); ambuligan (Ilk.); agam-agam (Ilk.); bagalbak (Sul.); bagauk (Tag.); bagauak-itim (Tag.); bagauak-na-puti (Tag.); bakobok (Ilk.); danata (S.L.Bis.); kasopañgit-gubat (Tag.);ku-ku (Sul.); sunkol (S. L.Bis.); tabugok (Sub.).

Bagauak-na-puti is often common in thickets and secondary forest at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Basilan, in most islands and provinces. It also occurs in Celebes and the Sulu Islands.

This smooth shrub grows from 1.5 to 4 meters high. The leaves are oblong to elliptic-oblong, 11m to 18 centimeters in length, and 5 to 9 centimeters wide, with pointed tip and rounded base, and somewhat entire or slightly toothed margins. The leaf stalks are 4 to 10 centimeters long. The fragrant flowers are borne in terminal cymose panicles. The calyx is inflated, green at the time of flowering, oblong-ovoid, about 2.5 centimeters long, and 1 centimeters in diameter. The corolla-tube is slender, cylindric, 5 to 8 centimeters long and straw-colored or whitish; the lobes are narrowly oblong or linear-oblong, spreading, and about 2.5 centimeters in length. The stamens are exserted, and purple. The fruit is fleshy, blue, somewhat rounded, and about 1 centimeter in diameter. The calyx in the fruit is thickened, red or purple, split into five, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long lobes, and spreading when the fruit is mature.

Guerrero reports that this plant is used in the Philippines as an external remedy for chest and stomach pains. The leaves are said to be boiled and applied to carbuncles.

 

Bagilumbang

ALEURITES TRISPERMA Blanco
Aleurites saponaria Blanco

Local names: Bagilumbang (Tag.); balukanag (Ilk.,Bis.,Tag.); banukalad (Tag.); balukanag (Tag.); banunkalad (Tag.); balokanad (Tag.); lumbang (Bik.); lumbang-banukalad (Tag.); kalumban (Tag.); lumbang-gubat (Tag.).

Bagilumbang is found only in the Philippines, being widely scattered in forests at low and medium altitudes in La Union, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Quezon, Rizal, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; in Negros; an in Mindanao. It is sometimes planted.

This is a tree growing from 10 to 15 meters in height or more. It does not have hairs except on the inflorescence. The leaves are suborbicular to broadly ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, and entire, with the base broadly cordate. The flowers are 10 to 12 millimeters in diameter, with the petals obovate, are densely hairy without, and are borne on panicles about 15 centimeters long. The fruit, which is somewhat rounded and angled, is 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter; it opens later along the angles. It usually has three cells, each containing a single seed. The seed is somewhat circular, flattened, and rather smooth, but has numerous small ridges. It has a hard, brittle shell about 0.5 millimeter thick. Within this shell is a white, oily, fleshy kernel consisting of a very thin embryo surrounded by a large endosperm. The kernel is covered by a thin, white, paperlike seed coat.

According to Brown, the seeds of bagilumbang, like those of other species of Aleurites, yield a high percentage of oil. The constants of bagilumbang oil are very similar to those of tung oil. The constants of bagilumbang oil are very similar to those of tung oil. Bagilumbang oil is more suitable for varnish making than is tung oil. A great disadvantage of bagilumbang oil is that it has very poor keeping qualities. The kernel yields as high as 56 per cent of oil.

The seed is a very strong purgative. Brown states that the kernels, when fresh, have a pleasant, nutty flavor, but leave a burning sensation in the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach; even a part of one nut may cause either violent vomiting within half an hour or else a terrific diarrhea, beginning within a few hours after eating and lasting from 12 to 24 hours. According to Guerrero, the oil extracted from the seeds is an effective insecticide. The sap of the bark is employed as a cure for scurf.

 

Baho - baho

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
Aleurites saponaria Blanco

Local name: Baho-baho (Tag.).

Bauhinia tomentosa is cultivated in Manila and in other towns and was introduced from tropical Asia.

It is an erect, branched shrub attaining a height of 1.5 to 3 meters. The branchlets, lower surfaces of the leaves, and pods are somewhat hairy. The leaves are 4 to 7 centimeters long, about as wide, and split about one-third to the base, into two, with oval, rounded lobes. The flowers are pale lemon yellow, usually in pairs on axillary peduncles. The pods are 9 to 11 centimeters long, about 1.5 centimeters wide, flattened, and contain 6 to 10 small seeds.

Nadkarni reports the presence of tannin.

The medicinal properties of this plant are unknown to the Filipinos. In India, according to Kirtikar and Basu, the bruised bark is applied externally to tumors and wounds. On the coast of Malabar a decoction of the root-bark is administered for inflammation of the liver. The decoction of the root-bark is also used as a vermifuge. An infusion of the bark is also used as an astringent gargle.

Dymock and Kirtikar and Basu, quoting Ainslie, report that in southern India the small, dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Nadkarni states that the seeds may be eaten for their tonic and aphrodisiac action.

 

Bain

DROSERA PELTATA Sm.

Local names: Bain (Ig.); gumgumayeng (Bon.);ruut (Ig.); sanabugan (Ig.).

Bain is commonly in Bontoc, and Benguet Subprovinces and Zambales Province in Luzon, on open grassy slopes in thin pine forests, at an altitude of from 1,000 to 1,800 meters, and in open heaths on Mt. Halcon, Mindoro, at 2,400 meters. It also occurs in India to Japan and southward to Tasmania.

The plant is a perennial herb, with erect, leafy stem, 8 to 25 centimeters in height. The leaves are alternate, long-petioled, and lunate-peltate. The racemes are subterminal. The flowers are white. The sepals are ovate, smooth and erose or fimbriate. The seed are obovoid, with prominently reticulated testa.

Among the Igorots the leaves are dried and powdered, and the powder place din the cavity of an acting tooth.

All the members of this family have a bitter, acrid, and caustic flavor. If put in milk they rapidly curdle it. White reports that the leaf extract contains a proteolytic enzyme.

Chopra affirms that the plant is used in phthisis. According to Kirtikar and Basu the leaves of this curious and insectivorous plant bruised and mixed with salt, are used as a blister in Kumaon. This same practice prevails in Kanawar, without, however, the use of salt.

 

Baino

NELUMBIUM NELUMBO (Linn) Druce.
Nymphaea nelumbo Linn.
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Nelumbium speciosum Willd.
Nelumbium turbinatum Blanco
Nelumbium transversum Presl.

Localnames: Baino (Tag.); liñgaling (Ibn.); lotussacred lotusEgyptian lotusEast Indian lotus (Eng.); saua (Mag.); sukau (Ilk.); Lien Ou (Chinese.)

Lotus or baino, is found from northern Luzon to Mindanao, in shallow lakes. It was probably introduced in the Philippines, but if so, in prehistoric times. It is a native of Asia and is now widely distributed in cultivation.

The plant is a perennial, aquatic herb with creeping rootstocks. The leaves are raised above the water, large, rounded, peltate, and 50 to 90 centimeters in width. The flowers are attractive, being pink, red or white, and 15 to 25 centimeters in diameter and stand out of the water. The flower has about twenty pink petals, 7 to 15 centimeters in length. In the center of the flower there is a large structure shaped like an inverted cone. In the top of this are located the ovules, which later become the seeds. Around this inverted cone are numerous yellow stamens. The mature fruit is formed by the enlargement of the spongy, cone-shaped structure in the center of the flower. The ripe carpel (fruit and seed in one) is about 13 millimeters long, with a black, bony and smooth pericarp.

The lotus is a very beautiful plant cultivated in many parts of the world as an ornamental. It is occasionally grown in the Philippines for this purpose. Immense numbers of unopened buds are sent to Manila, which are sold extensively in flower shops and are very commonly used to make beautiful centerpieces for parties.

The lotus is well known as a food plant. The unripe seeds are eaten raw, boiled or roasted, while the ripe seeds are boiled or roasted. The rhizomes, imported from China, are often sold in Manila covered with mud. After being cleaned, these are commonly sliced and eaten raw o cooked with meat. Ochse reports that the young petioles, after the rough, outer layer has been scraped off, and the young leaves can be eaten after cooking. In Indo-China the pollen and stamens are used to perfume tea.

Read reports that the dried seeds contain nelumbine, protein 15.9 percent, fat 2.8 percent, carbohydrates 70 percent, ash 3.9 percent, vitamin C2, and CuO 0.59 percent. The rhizomes contain starch 9.7 percent, ash 1.1 percent, vitamin C1, asparagin 2 percent, protein 1.7 percent and fat 0.1 percent.

Wehmer records that the leaves, peduncles, and cotyledon contain and alkaloid, nelumbine; and the rhizomes asparagin 2 percent. Czapek also states that nelumbine is present in the cotyledons and in the young leaves.

The action as reported by Nadkarni is as follows: The seeds are demulcent and nutritive; the filaments and flowers are cooling, sedative, astringent, bitter, refrigerant and expectorant; and the roots are demulcent.

Medicinally, Guerrero reports that the roots, rhizomes and flowers are employed as an astringent, and that the leaves and seeds are used in poultices.

Nadkarni states that flowers, filaments, and juice of the flower-stalks are useful in diarrhea, cholera, liver complaints, and also fevers; they are recommended also as a cardiac tonic. The compound decoction is useful in bilious fevers. A syrup of the flowers is used in coughs, to check haemorrhages from bleeding piles, and in menorrhagia and dysentery. Debeaux says that in China the juice of the plant is recommended for dysentery. Macmillan writes that the stamens are useful for bleeding piles and in parturition. Burkill reports that the astringent petals (pounded) are administered for syphilis by the Malays. In Java they are given in diarrhea and vomiting, according to Heyne.

The seeds are used as an application in leprosy and other skin affections. Crevost and Petelot declare that they are given in dysentery and diarrhea in decoction and as diuretic. They add that the seeds are recommended in spermatorrhea and erotic dreams. The embryo, according to Burkill, Hooper and Soubeiran and Thiersant is used in China and Malaya to reduce high fevers, and in the treatment of cholera, haemoptysis and spermatorrhea. It is also taken as a tea.

Sanyal and Ghose and Nadkarni record that the roots, which are mucilaginous, are given for piles. Menaut states that the roots are used as an emmenagogue. Stuart considers the joints of the rootstocks to be haemostatic in haemoptysis, in postpartum, hemorrhages, haematuria and bloody stools.

Dey states the milky, viscid juice of the leaf and flower stalks is used in diarrhea. Stuart and Soubeiran and Thiersant say that in China, the leaves are considered as antifebrile and antihaemorrhagic, and are a deterrant to skin diseases.

 

Bakaig

CAESALPINIA NUGA (Linn) Ait
Guilandina nuga Linn.
Caesalpinia laevigata Perr.

Local names: Bakaig (Tag.); binit (Bik.); kalauinit (Tag.); kabit-kabag (Tag.); kamit-kabag (Tag.); sagmit (Tag.); sampinit (P. Bis.); sapanit (Sbl.); sapinit (Tag., S. L. Bis.); suba (Sul.).

Bakaig is found throughout the Philippines in tidal swamps, in thickets along the seashore, etc. It is pantropic in distribution.

It is a smooth, climbing shrub reaching a length of 10 meters or more. The branches are armed with short, stout, hard, hooked prickles. The leaves are bipinnate and 20 to 30 centimeters long, and the rachis are armed with recurved spines beneath. The pinnae are 6 to 8, and rather distant. The leaflets are 4 to 6 on each pinna, leathery, shinning, ovate to elliptic-ovate, 2 to 5 centimeters long, and pointed at the tip. The flowers are yellow, borne in terminal and ample panicles, and about 1 centimeter in diameter. The pod is 4 to 5 centimeters long, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide, beaked, hard, and indehiscent, and contains a single seed.

In the Philippines a decoction from the crushed seeds is used as an emetic and is believed helpful in dysentery. In India, Kirtikar and Basu report that the roots are diuretic and are useful in cases of gravel and stone in the bladder. Externally and internally the juice of the stem has been used in a eye diseases. For the same purpose the roasted fruit, which has a bitter taste, is also used. The finely powdered leaves have also been administered as a uterine tonic to women immediately after delivery.

 

Bakauan-Babae

RHIZOPHRA MUCRONATA Linn.
Rhizophora longissima Blanco.

Local names: bakau (Tagb., P. Bis., Sub., Sul., Mbo.); bakauan (Tag., Bik., P. Bis., C. Bis., Sul., Mag.); bakhau (C. Bis.); bangkau (Tag.); toñgog (Bis.); bakauan-babae (Tag.).

Bakauan-babae is found in mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines. It is also found in tropical shores of the Old World.

This is a tree of the mangrove swamps growing up to 12 meters in height, with numerous prop roots. The leaves are shinning, oblong-elliptic, 8 to 16 centimeters long, 3.5 to 8 centimeters wide, and pointed at boteh ends. The cymes are axillary, 2.5 to 4 centimeters long, and bear from 3 to 7 stackless, white or cream-colored flowers. The fruit is ovoid, 3.5 to 5 centimeters long, pendulous, and brown or olive-colored, the persistent calyx-lobes are reflexed. The protruded radicle is green and cylindric, attaining often a length of 20 to 40 centimeters before falling from the tree. The seeds often germinate while yet on the tree and crop as young plants into the mud below.

Bakauan-babe is useful for its wood and as fuel. Charcoal made from it is considered excellent. The bark is rich in tannin and is much used in tanning and dyeing. Wells says that tar can be made from the wood.

The tannin content of the bark is variable. The Philippine bark gave limits of 12.3 and 33.8 per cent. Burkill records that the leaves contain 9.13 per cent of tannin; the unripe fruit, 12 per cent; and ripe fruit, only 4.21 per cent.

Kirtikar and Basu say that the bark has been tried medicinally in cases of haematuria. Chopra states that the bark is astringent and is a cure for diabetes.

Burkill quotes Logan, who reports that old leaves found floating in Pulai River are given in decoction at childbirth. Daruty states that the leaves are prescribed for fever.

According to Hedley, the honey which the native bees in Queensland collect from the flowers of this tree is reputed to be of a poisonous nature, and is probably endowed with some deleterious principle.

 

Baket

CORIARIA INTERMEDIA Matsum.

Local names: Buakat  (Ig.); baket (Ig.); bikit (Ig.).

Baket is found in the ravines, at an altitude of 1,400 to 2,000 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto and Benguet in the Mountain Province. It also occurs in Formosa.

This shrub grows from 1 to 3 meters in height. The young branches are four-angled, reddish, or pinkish. The leaves are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 4 to 8.5 centimeters in length, 2 to 4.2 centimeters in width, blunt to rounded at the base, and pointed at the tip. The flowers are very small, about 2 millimeters in length, greenish to reddish, and borne on simple racemes 6 to 15 centimeters long. The fruit is composed of five very small cocci surrounded by fleshy, persistent petals and sepals of a bluish-black color, which give it a berry like appearance.

Santos made a pharmacognostic study of the leaf and seed of the plant.

Wells claims to have isolated a poisonous glucoside from the leaves and fruit. Marañon, who made a chemical study of the plant, reports that it contains coriamyrtin 0.176 percent in the fruit, 0.009 percent in the leaves, and 0.041 percent in the stems.

The poisonous properties of this Philippine Coriaria was first reported by the late Eduardo Lete of San Fernando, La Union, who stated that the Igorots were acquainted with the toxicity of this plant. A decoction of the leaves and fruit is considered deadly poisonous.

 

Bakong

CRINUM ASZATICUM Linn.
Crinum gigantium Blanco
Haemanthus pubescens Blanco

Local names: Agabahan (Bis.); cgakong (Bon.); bakong (tag.,Bag.,Ilk.,Sbl.); biliba (Sub.); kabong (Bik.); palagukon (Bis.); saltnio (Bon.); salibangbang (Bik.); teba (Bon.).

Bakong is found throughout the Philippines along sandy seashores, and sometimes planted inland. It also occurs in India to Malaya and western Polynesia. The plant is occasionally cultivated for its beautiful and showy flowers.

Bakong has large, coated bulbs, 5 to 10 centimeters in diameter. The leaves are crowded at the apex, lanceolate, 90to 150 centimeters long, 12 to 15 centimeters wide. The scape, arising from the axils of the old leaves, is erect, stout, and solid, 1 meter high or less. The spathe subtending the flowers is about 15 centimeters long. The flowers are fragrant, 20 to 40, each subtended by a thin, narrow bracteole. The perianth tube is greenish, and about 1 centimeter long; and the lobes are spreading, white, linear, recurved or revolute, about 8 centimeters long, and 8 millimeters wide. The filaments are very slender, free, and purplish above. The fruits are subglobose, about 5 centimeters in diameter.

Gorter reports that the substance acting emetically is an alkaloid, lycorine (1 to 1.8 per cent), which is allied to emetine. Potenciano studied the bulbs of this plant and reported the presence of baconine. The astringent property is due to the presence of a considerable quantity of tannin.

The parts of the plant used medicinally are the leaves and the bulbs. The bulbs are official in the Pharmacopoeia of India.

According to Guerrero the bulbs are prepared and an ointment and the leaves are used as an emollient, both in the form of topicals. The bulbs have emetic properties. Nadkarni reports that in India the leaves and roots are emetic and diaphoretic.  He considers them a good substitute for ipecacuanha. The succulent leaves besmeared with castor oil and warmed, or the bruised leaves mixed with the oil, form a useful application for repelling witlows and other inflammations at the ends of toes and fingers, and also may be used as fomentations on inflamed joints and sprains. The juice of the leaves with a little salt is used for earache and other ear complaints.

Drury states that in Java the root is regarded as a good emetic. Burkill and Haniff report its use in treating fevers, lumbago, headaches, and swellings.

 

Balabat

LICUALA SPINOSA Wurnb.

Local names: Balabát (P. Bis.); ugsáng  (Sul.)

Balabát is found near the sea, in thickets at low altitudes in Culion, in Balabac, and in the Calamianes Islands. It sometimes occurs also immediately back of the mangrove in brackish mud. It is now cultivated in Manila for ornamental purposes. It also occurs in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to the Mollucas.

The stems are stout, roughened with fallen leaf scars, clustered, 2 to 3 maters high, 5 to 10 centimeters in diameter. The leaves are about  1 meter across, deeply divided, 9- to 13-partite, and horizontally spreading fan shaped. The spadix is a axially, elongated, with the branches adnate to the orifice of the spathes, ultimately with many finely pubescent, densely flowered spikes. The flowers are sessile, placed in two rows or three, small and nearly oval shape.  The calyx is suboval, divided at the middle into three rounded teeth.  The corolla is a little longer than the calyx and is divided below the middle into three broad, lanceolate segments.  The fruit is obovoid, and 5 to 8 millimeters long, pedicelled by the calyx tube; red when mature, and one-seeded.  The seed is ovoid, with horny albumen on a transverse section, horseshoe-shaped.

According to Caius in Cambodia the bark is used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis with spitting of blood.

 

Balangot

TYPHA CAPENSIS Rohrb.
Typha angustifolia Blanco
Typha angustifolia Linn.  subsp. javanica Graebn.

Local names: Balangot (Tag., S.L. Bis.); homai-homai (Bis.); kaidked (Pang.); lampàkanai (C.Bis.); tubal-tubal (C.Bis.).

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines, being abundant at low altitudes in low, wet places and shallow or stagnant water. It also occurs from Africa and Madagascar to New Guinea.

The plant is erect, reaching up to 2 meters in height. The leaves are long, linear, and 10 to 12 millimeters wide. The spikes are exerted, cylindric; the male flowers superposed above the female ones; the female ones when mature are brown, 12-20 centimeters long, up to 2 centimeters in diameter.

According to Guerrero the wholly inflourescence is employed in the healing of wounds; yet it ought rather to be considered as haemostatic by mechanical action. Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk state that the Zulus use a decoction of the root in the treatment of venereal diseases and the Xosas use it to aid in the expulsion of placenta. Regnault regards the roots as diuretic, and are employed urethritis and dysentery. Chopra and Nadkarni report that the species in India is used as a refrigerant, an aphrodisiac, and a cure for dysuria. Stuart says that the stamens (without the pollen) are used in China as an astringent for dysentery and for hemorrhage of the bowels. The stamens, with the pollen are also used as an astringent and styptic. De Grosourdy writes that in the Antilles the pollen is used as substitute for powder of licopodio; and that the hairs or seeds are used against burns.

 

Balaniog

BRUCEA AMARISSAMA (Lour.) Merr.
Gonus amarissimus Lour.
Brucea sumatrana Roxb.

Local names: Balaniog (Chab.); bogo-bogo (P., Bis., C. Bis.); magkapayos (S. L. Bis.); manongai-bobi (C. Bis.); selte (Yak.); ya tan tzu (Chinese.).

Balaniog is found in Pangasinan Province in Luzon; in Leyte; Palawan; Negros; and Surigao, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Misamis Provinces in Mindanao, and in Basilan in thickets at low altitudes. It is also reported from India to southern China through Malaya and Australia.

This is somewhat hairy shrub reaching a height of about 3 meters. The leaves are alternate, pinnate, and about 30 centimeters or more in length. The leaflets are 4 to 10 centimeters in length, pointed at the apex and rounded or pointed at the base, and have prominently toothed margins. The flowers are small, reddish, and occur in axillary inflorescences. The fruit is oval, black, smooth, reticulated, and about 0.5 centimeter in length.

Power and Lees, who conducted chemical studies on the seeds, report that they contain no alkaloid; tannin, 1.8 per cent; and a small amount of a hydrolytic enzyme. They further report that the combined alcoholic and petroleum extracts of the seeds afforded the following substances: A small amount of an inconstantly boiling mixture of esters, probably of a butyric acid, and having the odor of the crushed seeds; also a very small amount of free formic acid, a fatty oil (20 per cent) consisting chiefly of the glycerides of oleic, linolic, stearic, and palmitic acids, associated with a saturated hydrocarbon, hentriacontane, C31H64, m.p. 67°-68°, and a crystalline substance, C20H34O. The latter melts at 130°-133°, and has (a) 23°/D = -37.7°; it is allied to the cholesterols, and agrees in composition with quebrachol, cupreol, and cinchol. Two bitter principles were found but it was definitely shown that neither can be regarded as quassin. They conclude that the results of their investigation, therefore, failed to confirm the statement of Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen that the seeds do not contain quassin, nor do this results afford any justification for the statement of Bertrand respecting the glucosidal nature of a bitter principle which he has termed “kosamine”.

An alkaloid brucamarine has been separated from Brucea sumatrana [Dispensatory of the U.S.A. Footnotes, 19th edition (1907) 417-1541].

Salway and Thomas record that the bark yielded an amorphous bitter principle, volatile acids, (formic, acetic and butyric), protein, and an acid, which was probably behenic acid. The bark contains les of the bitter principle than the fruit.

The fruit is official in the Netherlandish (4) Pharmacopoeia.

Dr. Liu Hsiao-Liang [Chinese Med. Journ. 52 (1937) 91 and 93] states that the toxic symptoms produced in the patient by the seeds were nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and purging. He continued that in no case , however, were these symptoms severe. They occurred only when single full doses of the seeds were taken. No toxic symptoms were observed when the seeds were administered in divided doses. The powdered form of the seeds was the most toxic. The toxic substances are not in the oil of the seed, but in the bitter portion of the nonoleated fraction of the seed. He further, said, that when a small stool with living dysentery amoebae was mixed with a 2 percent cold infusion of powdered seed (oil free) the amoebae became round and died instantly. The expressed oil has no amebicidal action although the ethereal extract has. The oil was crudely extracted from the powdered seeds by means of a pharmaceutical tincture press.

According to Guerrero, the fresh fruit is said to be good for stomachache. Power and Lees report that all the parts of the plants are esteemed in the East Indies as a stomachic tonic and are also used for diarrhea, intermittent fever, and worms. They cite also Dybowski [Rev. Cult. Col. Paris 4 (1900)], who considers the seeds a remedy for most types of precious dysentery. They consider the seeds as a specific for malaria, which is comparable to quinine. Dr Liu Hsiao-Liang mentioned that ya tan tzu was recorded in 1765 A.D. and was asserted to be useful in diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and chronic dysentery. He experimented in Temple Hill Hospital, Chefoo, and Shantung, with the sees ya tan tzu on three cases of chronic bacillary dysentery with no apparent visible improvement. He treated, however, nineteen cases of chronic and acute amoebic dysentery and over 80 percent were benefited. The dosage (determined both from Chinese literature and from animal tests) consists of the following: to an adult from 20 to 50 seeds (shells removed but seeds not broken) in capsule were administered in one dose or in doses divided throughout one day. A large dose was given after 2 to 3 days if the amoebae had not disappeared from the stools.

 

Balaniu

ANDROPOGON TORTILIS (Presl.) Merr.
Anthistiria tortilis Presl.
Andropogon hamatulus Nees
Andropogon martyni Nees
Andropogon nardus Linn., var., hamatulus Hack
Andropogon nardus Rolfe.

Local name: Balaniu (Bon.).

This variety is found in Batanes Islands; Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bontoc, Pangasinan, Zambales and Nueva Ecija Provinces): Cagayan Sulu, in open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. It also occurs in Southern China. The species, on the other hand, occurs in India, Africa and Malaya.

The rootstock is stout. The stem is tall, stout and leafy. The leaves are long and narrow. The panicle is large, often supra-decompound; the branches are loosely or closely packed, erect at length, often drooping. The spathes are laxly or closely imbricate, 1 to 2 centimeters long, with the spikes provided with 4 to 5 pairs of spikelets, sessile awned.

The species is cultivated in India, Ceylon and other tropical countries for its essential oil. When the grass is distilled it yields a pale-yellow oil, which has a very strong odor, and is known commercially as citronella oil. The variety tortilis in the Philippines has not been studied chemically. We are not certain it will yield citronella oil. However, the oil distilled from this variety is used locally to perfume soap. An ointment made out of it is used as a protection against mosquito bites.

The uses of the citronella oil, and the plant herein reported, are those of the species. According to Nadkarni the oil contains aldehyde, a terpene, an isomer of borneol, named citronellol, and acetic and valeric acids. It is antispasmodic, carminative, and stimulant.

Flückiger and Hanbury add that in India the oil is used as an external application for rheumatism and is also used to stimulate growth of hair.

 

Balanoi

OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn.
Ocimum americanum Blanco
Ocimum citriodorum Blanco

Localnames:  Albanaka (Ibn.,Tag.); balanoi (Tag.); bauing (Sul.); bidai (Ilk.); bouak (Bis.); kalu-ui (C. Bis.); kamangi (P.Bis.); rukuruku (Sul.); samilig (Bik.); samirig (Bik.); solasi (Tag., Pamp.);  valanoi (Iv.);sweet basil (Engl.).

Balanoi is found throughout the Philippines in the settled areas at low and medium altitudes.  It is sometimes planted but is often spontaneous in open waste places.  The plant was certainly introduced and also occurs from tropical Asia to Polynesia.

This is an erect, branched, smooth or somewhat hairy, and very aromatic undershrub 0.5 to 1.5 meters in height.  The leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, entire or slightly toothed, and pointed at the tip.  The flowers are pink or purplish and are borne in racemes, which are 8 to 15 centimeters long.  The calyx is strongly reflexed in fruit; the upper lobe is rounded; the lower two are narrowly lanceolate; all are pointed and the lateral ones are ovate.  The corolla is exerted, and 9 to 10 millimeters long.  The nutlets are very small, ellipsoid, and black.

The plant is used as a condiment in the Philippines.  In India it is used for culinary purposes as a seasoning.  The seeds are sometimes eaten.  In Kanawar they are sometimes eaten mixed in ordinary bread. Infused in water, they are employed in Eastern Bengal to form a refreshing and cooling drink.  Burkill says that in Malaya they are used to keep to scent them while in Africa they are compounded into cosmetics.

Wehmer records that the German and French plant yields a volatile oil 0.02 to 0.04 percent, which contains cineol, methyl chavicol, linalool, and terpine hydrate (?).  The flowers yield 0.4 percent of volatile oil. The Algiers oil contains cineol, linalool, and estragol ( - methyl chvicol).  The Java variety contained eugenol, ocimene, and pinene.  Oil from Reunion has d-d-pinene, cineol, d-camphor, methyl chavicol, and linalool.  Oil from Seychelles has methyl chavicol and anethol.

The flowering herb is official in the Belgian (1, 2); Danish (1, 3); French (1, 5); Spanish (2-4); and Swedish (1-4) Pharmacopoeias; the leaves are official in the Mexican (2, 4) and Venezuelan (1, 2) Pharmacopoeias; and the volatile oil is official in the Belgian (1); French (1, 2); and Rumanian (1) Pharmacopoeias.

According to Bretschneider the whole plant is official in the Materia Medica of the ancient Chinese.

According to Guerrero, in the Philippines the leaves are used in infusion or decoction as a carminative and stimulant medicine.

The plant is regarded as carminative and stimulant.  The juice of the plant, sniffed up, causes sneezing and clears the brain.  Diaphoretic and expectorant properties are also ascribed to this plant.  A decoction of the plant is used as a wash for ulcers.  It is also prescribed in vomiting, hiccups, and polypus of the nose.

The roots are used for the bowel complaints of children, and as a febrifuge.

Kirtikar and Basu report that the leaves are useful in the treatment of croup, for which the juice, warmed with honey, is given.  The juice of the leaves forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ringworm, and the bruised leaves, for scorpion stings.  The juice is dropped into the ears for the cure of earache and dullness of hearing.  Rolet and Bouret state that the leaves and the flowers are considered excitant, diuretic and a stimulant for weak digestion.  Burkill says that the juice of the leaves is a common domestic remedy for coughs among the Malays.  A decoction of the leaves may be administered after childbirth, and the juice is taken if the menses are delayed.

The seeds and flowers also possess stimulant diuretic, and demulcent properties.  A cold infusion of the seeds can relieve after-pains of parturition.  The seeds of those plant are mucilaginous and cooling, being given in infusion in gonorrhoea, diarrhoea and chronic dysentery.  The seeds are used as an aphrodisiac.  The seeds, washed and pounded, are used in poultice for unhealthy sores and sinuses.  They are also given internally with sherbet in cases of habitual constipation and in internal piles.  The seeds are especially prescribed in diseases of the eyes, being said to remove films and opacities, and to soothe pain and inflammation. For treating coughs among children, the flowers are used.

 

Balatong-aso

CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn.

Local names: Andadasi (Ilk.); balatong-aso (Tag.); duda (C. Bis.); gulinggam (Sul.); kabal-kabalan (Tag.); katangan-aso (Tag.); suka (Ig.); sumting (S.L. Bis.); tambalisa (Tag.); tigniman (Tag.).

Balatong-aso is found throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes as a wed in waste places in and about towns. It is a native of tropical America, and is now pantropic in distribution.

Balatong-aso is an erect, somewhat branched, smooth, half woody herb or shrubby plant, 0.8 to 1.5 meters in height. The leaves are pinnate and about 20 centimeters long. The rachis has a large gland at the base. The leaflets are rank-smelling; occur in 5 pairs; are oblong-lanceolate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, and somewhat pointed at the base, and taper gradually to a fine pointed tip. The flowers are yellow and 2 centimeters long, and are borne on axillary and terminal racemes. The pods are about 10 centimeters long, 9 millimeters wide and thickened, and contain about 40 seeds.

Clonet examined the seeds of Cassia occidentalis and found them to contain fatty matter (olein and margarin), 4.9; tannic acid, 0.9; sugar, 2.1; gum, 28.8; starch, 2.0; cellulose, 34.0; water, 7.0; calcium sulphate and phosphate; chrysophanic acid, 0.9; malic acid, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, iron, and silica, together, 5.4; and achrosine, 13.58 parts in 100. The latter is a coloring matter. Bocquillon-Limousin states that the stem contains considerable alkaloid. Nadkarni adds that the leaves contain cathartin, a coloring matter. The roots contain a resin – a bitter, nonalkaloidal principle. Maurin has isolated oxymethylanthraquinone from the plant and traces of it from the leaf; 0.25 percent from the fruit; and 0.3 percent from the root. Moussu finds that the plant contains a toxalbumin.

According to Bruntz and Jaloux the roots are official in the Venezuelan (1,2) Pharmacopoeia; the leaves in the Mexican (2-4) and Venezuelan Pharmacopoeias; and the seeds in the Mexican (2-4) Pharmacopoeia.

According to Standley the seeds are sometimes employed as a substitute for coffee. The plant is used in domestic medicine for its reputed tonic, diuretic, stomachic, and febrifuge properties. It is employed especially for dropsy, rheumatism, fevers, and venereal diseases. The plant is used also, in the form of an ointment as a remedy for ringworm, eczema, and other skin diseases.

Hoehne says that the roots are frequently used as an anthelmintic in Brazil. Browne reports that in infusion of the roots and bark is employed against malaria and haematuria. Holland quoting Hiern (Cat. Welw. Afra. Pl. p. 193, v. 1) states that the root, which is very bitter, is used for good results in intermittent fevers. Cole records the roots are specific for gonorrhea, blackwater fever, and malarial dysentery. Christy mentions that an infusion of the root is given as a tonic and diuretic in dropsy and liver complaints. Kirtikar and Basu state that in West Indies the root is considered diuretic.

An infusion of the bark is given as a remedy for diabetes.

The leaves are purgative and antiherpetic, though not so sufficient as those of Cassia Alata. The leaves are used for poulticing the cheek for toothache in the Dutch Indies and for headache in Malaya. An infusion of the leaves has been employed by accredited physicians of the French Colonies of the western Africa in the treatment of yellow fever. The leaves are also used as a poultice to combat irritation and eczema and other skin diseases. An infusion of the leaves is used as a specific for blackwater fever in Lagos and a decoction is used as a febrifuge in Dahomey. An infusion of the leaves is also used as a purgative in Lagos and in Liberia.

According to Clonet the seeds are the most active part of the plant, and readily act as an emeto-cathartic. De Willdeman states that the seeds are employed as a febrifuge, usually as an infusion with coffee. Guerrero also mentions their use as a febrifuge in the Philippines. Planchon and Collin say that the seeds are used as a substitute for coffee in Senegal and the Antilles. They continue that the seeds possess antiperiodic properties analogous to those of quinine.

 

Balatong-pula

TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (Linn) Pers.
Cracca purpurea Linn.

Local names: Balatong-pula (Tag.); balbalatong (Tag.).

Balatong-pula is found in Cavite and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Bukidnon and Misamis Provinces in Mindanao, in open grasslands or waste places at low altitudes. It occurs also in India to southern China through Malaya to tropical Australia.

Balatong-pula is a copiously branched, suberect, slender, herbaceous perennial. The stems are smooth or finely downy, 30 to 60 centimeters in height. The leaves are odd-pinnate, 7.5 to 15 centimeters long, with 13 to 21 leaflets which are narrow and oblanceolate. The racemes are long, all leaf-opposed, and 7.5 15 centimeters in length. The lower flowers re fascicled. The calyx is covered with silky hair, has narrow teeth, and is as long as tube. The corolla is red. The pods are 3.5 to 5 centimeters long and slightly recurved, and contain 6 to 10 seeds.

Clarke and Banerjee report that the leaves contain a glucoside, rutin, 2.5 percent.  

According to Kirtikar and Basu, the plant is deobstruent and diuretic, and is useful in coughs, tightness of the chest, bilious febrile attacks, and obstructions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. They recommend it as a purifier of the blood and for boils, pimples, etc. The root id bitter and is given by native practitioners in dyspepsia and chronic diarrhea. The plant is used internally as a purifier of the blood, and is considered a cordial. An infusion of the seeds is given as a cooling medicine. The plant appears to act as a tonic and laxative. In Ceylon it is employed as an anthelmintic for children. In the Punjab, an infusion of the seeds is believed to be cooling. Fresh root bark, ground and made into a pill, with a little black pepper, is frequently given in cases of obstinate colic, with marked success.

 

Balete

FICUS BENJAMINA Linn.
Ficus haematocarpa Blume
Urostigma haematocarpum Miq.
Urostigma benjaminum Miq.

Local names: Balete (Ilk., Tag.) salisi (Is.)

Balete is found in Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, in primary forests at low and medium altitudes. It also occurs in India to Southern China and Malaya.

It is a strangling, smooth plant, assuming a tree-form and reaching a height of 15 meters or more, with dropping branches. The leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate, 6 to 9 centimeters long, with prominent and rather slender point, rounded base, entire margins, smooth, green and shinning; the nerves slender, spreading, and not prominent. The petioles are 5 to 10 millimeters long. The fruit is axiallary, solitary, stalkless, dark-purple and fleshy when mature, somewhat spherical, and 1 centimeter in diameters

Balete is planted in Manila as an excellent avenue and graceful shade tree. Rope is made in the provinces from its bast.

Burkill reports that the bark contains 4.2 percent of tannin and that the latex contains 30 percent caoutchouc, along with 59 percent resin. Wehmer records that the wax contains cerotic acid.

Nadkarni states that the bark of the root, the root itself, and the leaves boiled in oil are applied on wounds and bruises. He adds that the juice of the bark has a reputation for curing liver diseases. In rheumatic headache the pounded leaves and bark are applied as a poultice.

 

Baleting-Baging

FICUS INDICA Linn.
Urostigma tjiela Miq.

Local names: Agaien (Bon.): balete (Ibn.,Tag.); baleting-baging (Tag.); baleting-ibon (Tag.); gudugud (If.); isip (Bon.); kamanlingan (Sbl.); kayapa (Ibn.); marobutum (Bag.); nonok (C.Bis., Sul.).

Baleting-baging is commonly found throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. It also occurs in Assam and Burma to Malaya.

This is an erect, smooth tree, 4 to 12 meters high, starting as an epiphyte strangling its leathery, elliptic-ovate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, shining smooth, with entire margin, and narrowed at both ends. The petioles are 6 to 12 millimeters long. The receptacles are nearly spherical about 1 centimeter in diameter or less, axillary, solitary or in pairs, stalkless, dark-purple and fleshy when mature, smooth, and the base with three small ovate bracts.

According to Nadkarni, the bark contains tannin, wax and caoutchouc. The fruit contains oil, albuminoids, carbohydrates, fiber and ash 5 to 6 percent..

Bruntz and Jaloux report that the latex is official in the French (3) Pharmacopoeia; and the resinous substance, in the Belgian (1); Danish (1,2); French (3); Greek (1); Mexican (1-4); Romanian (1); Swedish (1-6); and Venezuelan (1,2) Pharmacopoeias.

In the Philippines the Negritos and Mangyans use the pounded and cleaned bark to cover their private parts. Blanco reports that the bruised roots are used as a vulnerary.

Nadkarni states that the bark is tonic and diuretic, and the fruit, cooling and tonic. The young buds and the milky juice are astringent. The milky juice is useful as an external application to pains and bruises and for rheumatism and lumbago. The leaves are heated and applied as a poultice to abscesses to promote suppuration and discharge of pus. Internally it is useful in dysentery and diarrhea. An infusion of the bark (1 in 10) is said to have specific properties in the treatment for diabetes. A decoction of the bark, which contains about 10 percent of tannin, is used as an astringent lotion in leucorrhoea with advantage. The leaves after they have turned yellow, are given in decoction with toasted rice as a diaphoretic; three leaves are used for the decoction. The root fibers in the form of decoction with or without the addition of honey, are supposed to resemble sarsaparilla in action’ they are useful in gonorrhoea. An infusion of the small branches is useful in haemoptysis. The tender ends of the hanging roots are given for obstinate vomiting. The young buds, like the milky juice, are astringent and useful cases of dysentery and diarrhea. The concentrated juice in combination with the fruit is an aphrodisiac and is also believed to be of much value in spermatorrhea and gonorrhea.

Ainslie states in his Materia Indica that the latex is applied in toothache to the tooth or gums and also to the soles of the feet when cracked or inflamed. Planchon and Collin assert that the fruits are employed as a tonic and cooling.

 

Balibangan

DALBERGIA FERRUGINEA Roxb.
Dalbergia luzonensis Vogel.
Dalbergia limonnensis Benth.
Dalbergia stipulacea F- Vill.
Dalbergia ferruginea Roxb. Var. daronensis Elm.

Local names: Balibagan(P.Bis.); balintodok (Bag.); balitadhan (Mbo.); gipus-gipos (Sul.); kulik-manok (Pamp.).

Balibagan is common thickets and secondary forest at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. It also occurs in Borneo to New Guinea and the Caroline Islands.

This is a climbing shrub reaching a height of several meters. The younger parts are covered with brown hairs, often becoming nearly smooth with age. The leaves are pinnate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, and made up of 15 to 21 leaflets. The latter are elliptic-oblong or oblong, and 1.5 to 4 centimeters long. The flowers are pink, white, or yellowish, about 5 to 7 seven centimeters long, and borne in large numbers in axillary and terminal panicles. The pods are oblong to strap-shaped, 3 to 7 centimeters long, and 1.5 centimeters less or wide, and contain 1 to 3 seeds, being thin except where he seeds occur.

According to Guerrero a decoction of the wood of the stem or root is an emmenagogue, and is an abortive if the dose is excessive.

 

Balili

PANICUM STAGNINUM Retz.
Echinochloa stagnina Beauv.
Aegilops fluviatilis Blanco
Orthopogon loliaceus Llanos
Panicum crus-galli Linn., var., Stagninum O. Kuntze

Local names: Balili (Tag.); banago (Sub.); lagtomma-pula (Bik.); timsim (Tag.); uraroi (Bik.).

This grass is found throughout the Philippines, in most islands and provinces, growing in open shallow water and in low, wet places, swamps and borders of lake and streams, at low and medium altitudes. It also occurs from India to Africa and Malaya.

This grass is coarse, erect, aquatic or subaquatic in habit, of growth, 1 to 1.5 meters, the lower parts often decumbent and rooting at the nodes. The stems are 6 to 8 millimeters in diameter. The leaves are 20 to 40 centimeters long and 8 to 13 millimeters wide. The panicles are 20 centimeters long or less. The spikes are green or purple, distinctly longer than the internodes, spreading or ascending, and about 1.5 centimeters long and nearly 1 centimeter thick. The spikelets are in pairs in two rows nearly 5 millimeters long, the empty glumes hispid on the nerves, the third glume with a long or short awn.

Wehmer records that it contains saccharose 10 percent; reducing sugar 7 percent; emulsin; glucoside absent.

According to Guerrero a decoction of the pith is used as a diuretic.

 

Balimbing

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn.
Averrhoa pentranda Blanco

Local names: Balimbing (Sul.); balimbing (Tag., Bik.); balingbing (Bik., C. Bis.); balimbin (Tag.); daligan (Ilk.); dalihan (Ibn.); galangan (P. Bis.); galuran (Ibn.); garahan (Bis.); garulan (Ibn.); malimbin (S. L. Bis.); sirinate (Ting.).

Balimbing occurs in a cultivated or semicultivated state throughout the Philippines. It was introduced from tropical America and is now pantropic in cultivation.

This plant is a small tree growing to a height of 6 meters or less. The leaves are pinnate, about 15 centimeters long. The leaflets are quite smooth. There are usually about 5 pairs of leaflets which are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, the upper ones about 5 centimeters long and the lower ones smaller. The panicles are small, axillary and somewhat bell-shaped 5 to 6 millimeters long. The calyx is reddish purple. The petals are purple to rather bright purple, often margined with white. The fruit is fleshy green or greenish yellow, and usually about 6 centimeters long, with 5 longitudinal, sharp, angular lobes. The seeds are arillate.

The fruit is fleshy, acid, green or greenish-yellow, and edible. It is eaten with or without salt rather extensively by Filipinos and the juice is often used for seasoning. As in kamias the juice is used in washing clothes and removes spot or stains. The fruit is made also into pickles and sweets. Burkill says that the flowers are used in salads in Java.

Analyses of the fruit show it to be a fairly good source of iron but deficient in calcium. Hermano and Sepulveda report that it is a fair source of vitamin B. Read adds the fruit also contains vitamin C. According to Correa, the fruit contains oxalic acid, and potassium oxalate. Sanyal and Ghose say that the seeds contain an alkaloid, harmaline (C13H14N2O).

According to Kamel, a decoction of the leaves is good for aphtha and angina. Crevost and Petelot say that in Tonkin the flowers are considered to have a vermifuge action. Burkill and Haniff record the crushed leaves or shoots are used by the Malays as an application for chicken-pox, ringworm, and headache. A decoction of the leaves and fruit is given to arrest vomiting. Menaut states that the leaves are applied in fevers.

Regnault reports that the Chinese and Annamites use the flowers against cutaneous affections.

The fruit is laxative, a refrigerant, and an antiscorbutic excites appetite, is a febrifuge and antidysenteric, and is a sialogogue and antiphlogistic. It is good remedy for bleeding piles, particularly internal piles. The fruit is also given in fevers. The fruit will also benefit haematemesis, melaema, and some other forms of haemorrhage. It is given, in syrup, as a cooling drink in fevers in the Philippines. Safford states that eating the uncooked fruit causes hiccoughs. Regnault states that the Chinese and Annamites employ the fruit in the form of eye-salve against affections of the eyes.

Sanyal and Ghose report that the drug acts an as a stimulant to the reproductive organs in both male and the female. In the female it also increases the fluid of milk and the menstrual fluid. In large doses, it acts as an emmenagogue like ergot, and produces abortion. It is generally administered in the form of an infusion or decoction of the crushed seeds through it may also be given in the form of a tincture. Like Cannabis indica, it has slight intoxicating properties.

According to Dey, the seeds may be regarded as a narcotic, anodyne, emetic, and emmenagogue. The powder, in doses of ½ to 3 drams, is a good anodyne in asthma, colic, and jaundice, and the watery infusion id similarly useful.

 

Baling-uai

FLAGELLARIACEAE INDICA Linn.
Flagellaria philippinensis Elm.

Local names:  Anuad (Ilk.); arayan (Tag.); auai (Iv.); auai-si-gayang (Is.); baling-uai (Tag., Pamp.); boboaya (Mbo.); hoag-uai (Bik.); huag (S. L. Bis., Mbo.); huak (Bis.); ingual (Ilk.); ingula (Ilk.); inuat (Pang.); kala-uaiuai (Ibn.); ouag-oai (Bik.); ouag-ouag (Mbo.); pauna (P. Bis.); sagakap (P. Bis.); taua (P. Bis.); tinuung (Ibn.); uag (Sul., Bis., Bag., Bik.); uai-ti-uak (Ilk.); uak (Bis.); venagaiong (Is.).

Baling-uai is commonly found from Batanes Islands to Mindanao and Palawan, in all or most islands and provinces, in secondary forests at low medium altitude.  It also occurs in tropical Australia, and in tropical Asia through Malaya to tropical Australia and the Marianne Islands.

Baling-uai is a red like plant, climbing over lofty trees by the leaf-tendrils.  The stems is nearly 2.5 centimeters thick towards the base, terete, and smooth.  The leaves are sessile, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and variable in breadth, 2 to 4 centimeters or more, lanceolate from a rounded base, and terminate in a curled tendril at the apex.  The flowers are white, borne in clusters, in shortly pedunculate, irregularly laxly branched panicles, 15 to 30 centimeters long.  The outer perianth segments are broadly ovate or suborbicular, and the inner segments, more or less unequal.  The fruits are rounded, red when mature, smooth, and about 5 millimeters in diameter.

According to Guerrero the stem and rhizome in decoction are considered diuretic.  Kirtikar and Basu state that the leaves are astringent and vulnerary.  Heyne reports that the young leaves are used for making hair wash.

Burkill quotes Holmes [Bull havm. 6 115] states that the decoction of the flowers and leaves as a diuretic.

 

Balukanag

CHESOCHETON CUMINGIANUS (C.DC.) Harms.
Dasycoleum cumingianum C. DC

Local names: Balibisan (Mand.); balita (Buk.); balokanag (Bik.); balukanag (Tag.); batuakan (Ig.); dagau (Mand.); bayongboi (Gad.); diualat (Tag.); dododo (Bik.); dudos (Bik.); kalimotain (Tag.); kaniknik (S. L. Bis.); kapbongau (Ap.); kato (Tag.); kogod (Bik.); makalasa (Neg.); malakalad (C. Bis.); maramabolo (Ibn.); pakalsa (Neg.); salakin (Tag.).

Balukanag is an endemic species found commonly in primary forests at low and medium altitudes from Cagayan to Albay Provinces in Luzon; and in Catanduanes; Samar; Leyte; Camiguen de Misamis; and Mindanao.

This is a good-sized forest tree, reaching a height of 20 meters. The leaves are alternating crowded along the relatively thick twigs; with elliptic leaflets 20 to 25 centimeters in length. The flowers are nearly 2 centimeters long, tubular, and borne on elongated panicles. The fruit is solitary or loosely clustered, brown and subscurfy, pear-shaped, and about 8 centimeters in diameter, and grows upon long stout stalks. The nut averages 3 centimeters in length and 2.5 centimeters in diameter.

The nut contains a considerable percentage of nondrying oil. According to Brill and Agcaoili the nuts have rather hard shells which constitute about 60 per cent of the total weight of the seed. They obtained 35.56 per cent of balukanag oil by expression of the dried kernel. The dried kernel has the following composition: Fat (by extraction) 44.12 per cent, protein (N x 6.25) 9 per cent, ash 3.19 per cent. The chemical constants of the oil are as follows:

Specific gravity at 15° C

0.9203

Specific gravity at 30° C

0.9188

Butyro-refractometer (reading at 30° C)

60-61

Iodine value (Hanus)

80-78

Reichert-Meissel value

7.38

Saponification number

192.02

Free fatty acids (oleic) per cent

3.98

Acid value         cc. N/10 KOH

7.06

The balukanag oil, which is nondrying and has a rancid smell and is slightly bitter, is used for soap making and illumination. The oil is purgative but it is not as powerful as a castor oil. It is also use externally for rheumatism and inflammations due to edema, and internally for gastralgia and cholera, in doses of a teaspoonful and a tablespoonful in coffee or soup, respectively.

The oil from the kernel of Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr. is used as a cosmetic for the hair.

 

Bamban

DONAX CANNAEFORMIS (Porst. f.) K. Schum
Thalia cannaeformis Forst. F.
Maranta arundinacea Blanco
Clinogyne grandis Benth. & Hook. F.
Donax arundaetrum K. Schum.
Actophanes cannaeformis K. Schum.
Phrynium  dichotomum Roxb
Meranta dichotoma Wall.
Meranta grandie Miq.

Local names: Alaro Bis.); aratan (Gad.); baban (Chab.); bamban (Bis., Mbo., Tag., Sul., Buk.); banban (Tag., Bik., Bis., Bag., Ibn.); baras-barasan (Tag.); bonban (Tag.); buaban (Bag.); garomaka (Ilk.);lankuas (Ilk.); manban (Tag.); matalbak (Tag.); matapal (Isn.); mini (Ig.); nini (Ig.); ninik (Iv.).

Bamban is very common in secondary forests, especially along streams, at low and medium altitudes from the Batanes Island and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in all or most islands and provinces. It also occurs in Java and Borneo to New Guinea, the Aru and Admiralty Islands, New Hebrides, and the Marianne Islands.

The stems are 2 to 3 meters tall, several growing in a cluster, smooth, and widely branched.  The leaves are thin, smooth, ovate, 15 to 18 centimeters long, and 9 centimeters wide.  The petioles are about 1 centimeter long.  The panicles are loosely and few-branched.  The calyx-tube is about 1 centimeter long, its segment being lanceolate, acute, and ribbed.  The corolla lobes are white, linear to oblong, and longer than the tube.  The staminodes are obovate, and large, with the tip smaller, obovate, and clawed.  The anther, filament, and lobe are linear.  The fruit is rounded, slightly hairy, about 1 centimeter in diameter, and whitish.  The seeds are oblong, and strongly wrinkled.

The split stems of bamban are used for weaving baskets, for making fish traps and hats, and for sewing nipa shingles.

According to Guerrero the roots, when brewed in decoction, are said to act as an antidote for snake bites, and for blood-poisoning generally.  Burkill reports that in Macassar a paste of the young stems with ginger and cinnamon bark is swallowed for billousness.  Heyne says that the juice from young curled-up leaves is given for sore eyes.

 

Banaba

LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (Linn.)
Munchausia speciosa Linn.
Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb. .
Lagerstroemia flos-reginae Retz.

Local names: Agaro (Sbl.); bugarom (S.L. Bis.); banaba (Tag., and many other dialects); duguam (S.L. Bis.); kauilan (P. Bis.); makablos (Pang.); mitla (Pamp.); nabulong (Neg.); pmalauagon (S.L. Bis.); pamarauagon (S.L. Bis.); parasabukung (sub.); tabañgau (Ibn., Neg.); tauagnau (Ibn.).

Banaba is found n the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan, Mindanao, and the Sulu Archipelago, in most or all island and provinces, chiefly in secondary forest at low and medium altitudes. It is also reported to occur in India to southern China and southward through Malaya to tropical Australia.

This is a dangerous tree growing from 5 to 20 meters n height. The bark is smooth, grey to cream-colored, and peel off in irregular flakes. The leaves are smooth, oblong to elliptic-ovate, and 12 to 25 centimeters long. The flowers are 6-parted, purplish lilac or mauve-pink, rarely pink 5 to 7.5 centimeters across, and borne in large, terminal panicles up to 40 centimeters in length. The petals are oblong-obovate or obovate, shortly clawed, and 3 to 3.5 centimeters long; the margins are shortly clawed, and 3 to 3.5 centimeters long; the margins are undulate and hardly fimbriate. The fruit is large capsule, obovoid or ellipsoid, and 2 to 3.5 centimeters long. The seed is pale brown, with a wing 12 to 18 millimeters long.

Banaba is cultivated in Manila for its beautiful flowers. It makes an excellent avenue tree and very effective when massed in parks. Banaba is also useful as a timber tree.

Burkill and Haniff report that the bark contains much tannin. Pasupati reports that the fruit (Burmese) contains 14.26 to 17.28 per cent of tannin; the leaves, 12.83 to 13.3 per cent; and the bark 10 per cent. In the Philippines, Garcia carried out chemical and pharmacological studies of the leaves and reports that the principle constituents consist of a large amount of tannin, a moderate amount of glucose, and a small amount, if any, of glucoside. He summarizes his result as follows:

Oral administration of the deduction of banaba with doses equivalent to 1 or 2 gm. of dried leaves per kg. Body weight reduces blood sugar from 16 to 49 mg. Of glucose per 100 cc. of blood in normal rabbits.

The blood sugar reduction caused by the decoction of banaba was relatively greater when the initial blood sugar was high than when the initial amount was low.

The absence of important plant constituents suggest that the hypoglycemic principle is probably a hormone occurring in plants similar to insulin occurring in animals. This hypoallergenic principle, however, is not glucokinin, for the plant extracts prepared by Collip, which he considered to contain glucokinin, produces a delayed hypoglycemic effect twenty-one hours or more after administration of the extract. In case of the decoction of banaba, the hypoglycemic effect was immediate, similar to that produced by subcutaneous injection of insulin.

In Dr. Garcia’s subsequent paper, he calls the hypoglycemic principle an “insulin-like principle.”  He summarizes his result as follows:

The old leaves and ripe fruits are the parts of banaba that contain the greatest amount of an insulin-like principle. Twenty grams of old leaves or fruit, dried from one to two weeks, in the from of 100 cc. of 20 per cent decoction were found to have the activity equivalent to form 6 to 7.7 units of insulin in lowering blood sugar.

The mature leaves, young leaves, and flowers have an activity that range from 4.4 to 5.4 units of insulin per 100 cc. of 20 per cent decoction, or equivalent to around 70 per cent of the activity of the leaves or fruit.

The wood does not contain the insulin-like principle while the bark and roots contain a very small amount.

The insulin-like principle deteriorates or disappears in the different parts of banaba kept in the laboratory under ordinary conditions. The rate of deterioration for every 20 gms. of the dried parts of banaba per week is approximately 0.15 unit for fruit; 0/3 unit for old leaves; 0.58 unit for flowers; 0.6 unit for young leaves, and 0.9 unit for mature leaves.

In the Philippines, banaba is popular medicinal plant. A decoction of the leaves of all ages is used for diabetes mellitus. It is prepared and taken like tea. Some Filipino physicians believe that a decoction of the dried fruit is even better.

Kirtikar and Basu quote Dr. Stewart, who considers the bark stimulant and febrifuge. Burkill and Haniff state that a decoction of it is used in Pahang for abdominal pains. Heyne says that an infusion is taken to stop diarrhea. According to Duchesne a decoction of the roots is used against small ulcers of the mouth. He also considers a decoction of the leaves a deobstruent and diuretic. Grin writes that the bark, leaves, and flowers are given as a purgative. The seeds possess narcotic properties and are employed against aphthae.

 

Banag

EMILAX BRACTEATA Presl.
Smilax pseudochina Blanco
Smilax fistulosa Blanco
Smilax divaricata Blanco
Smilax blancoi  Kunth.
Smilax indico Naves

Local names: Bonág (Ilk.,Tag.,Ig.); banagan (Bis.);banál(Ig.); lanág (Pamp.)  kamagsa-abat (Tag.); hampas-tigbalang (Tag.); kolot-babui (Tag.); romas (Pamp).

Banag is common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes in Benguet, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon.

Banag is a woody vine reaching a height of several meters, in the stems armed with few to many stout spices. The leaves are elliptic to oblong-ovate 8 to 13 centimeters long. The base broadly rounded or slightly cordate, and the apex shortly and abruptly acuminate. The umbels are many-flowered, about 2 centimeters in diameter. The flowers are fragrant, greenish-yellow, and about 5 millimeters long. The berries are globose, 5 to 8 millimeters in diameter, and black when mature.

In the Visayas a decoction of the fresh or dry rhizomes is given as an emmenagogue. Guerrero states that the rhizomes and roots are regarded as depurative when used in the form of a decoction.

 

Banago

THESPESIA POPULNEA (Linn.) Soland.
Hibiscus populneus Linn.
Thespesia macrophylla Blume
Thespesia banalo Blanco

Local Names: Balu (Sul.); banag (kuy.); banago (Taag.,P.Bis.); banago-pula (Tag.); banalo (Tag.); banaro (Pang.); ba-ot (Sul.); iden (Ting.); tuba-tuba (Bik.); valo (Iv.); portia tree (Engl.).

Banago is found throughout the Philippines along the seashore. It is now pantropic in similar habitats.

This tree reaches a height of about 10 meters. The branchlets and under surface of the leaves are covered with small, brownish scales. The leaves are glossy, broadly ovate, and 8 to 15 centimeters long, with pointed tip and very broad, slightly heart-shaped base. The flowers are borne singly on the axils of the leaves. The calyx is truncate, being about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. The corolla is yellow, dark-purple inside at the base, and about 5 centimeters long, with strongly imbricate lobes; it turns purplish with age. The capsules are rounded but flattened, and 2 to 3 centimeters in diameters.

According to Safford, the plant is a favorite shade-tree growing wild and often planted about villages in Polynesia. He says that the heartwood is hard, smooth, durable, and of a dark-red color; that the Hawaiians make “poi” calabashes of it; and that it has been called “Polynesia rosewood.” In some of the Island of the pacific the bark of this tree is made into cordage.

According to Hefter, the seeds contain water 10 per cent, raw protein 24.88 per cent, and fixed oil (Thespesia oil) 18 per cent. Nadkarni adds the ripe seeds contain phosphoric acid, and that the heartwood yields a garnet-red resin.

Guerrero writes that a decoction of the bark is regarded as alternative if administered internally. It is used externally as an embrocation. A decoction of the leaves is reputed to be emollient and a cure for itches. The juice of the fruit is sometimes used in certain herpetic diseases.

According to Nadkarni, the roots are used as a tonic. Dymoc, Warden, and Hooper quote Ainslie, who says that a decoction of the bark is given internally as an alternative. Kirtikar and Basu report that in Mauritius the bark is described as depurative, and as cure for dysentery and hemorrhoids. Nadkarni says that a decoction of the bark is used for washing skin diseases. Ground bark mixed with coconut oil is also applied to skin diseases.

Dymock, Warden, and Hooper cite Rumpf, who states that the heartwood is used as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic, and for a kind of pleurodynia from which the Malays often suffers.

Kirtikar and Basu and Dymock, Warden, and Hooper report that leaves are applied to inflamed and swollen joints.

Kirtikar and Basu and Nadkarni say that in the Konkan, the flowers are employed in the cure of itches.

The fruit abounds in a viscid, yellow juice which the natives in South India use as an external application in psoriasis. In Tahiti, the fresh capsules, bruised, are applied to the forehead to cure migraine. The yellow sap of the peduncles is considered a cure for bites of insects like the centipede. The juice of the fruit is applied to warts.

 

Banaro

GUETTARDA SPECIOSA Linn.
Guettarda vermicularis Blanco .
Nyctanthes hirsute Linn.

Local names: Bagaolan (Tag.); balangigan (Bis.); balibagan (Bis.); banaro (Tag.); kalumpangin (Tag.); kapagan (Ilk.); lagbangan (C. Bis.); lambon (P. Bis.); malasurut (Bk.); tabon-tabon (Tag.); tabug (Sul.); tambon (P. Bis.); tulatalisai (Bik.);

Banaro is found scattered along the seashore throughout the Philippines. It is pantropic in distribution, always occurring along the seashore.

This tree is 5 to 15 meters in height, with rounded, sprawling crown. The leaves are hairy beneath, obovate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, 7.5 to 20 centimeters wide, small at the tip, and rounded or heart-shaped at the base. The flowers are white, fragrant, and about 3 centimeters across, with the yellow corolla-tube 2.5 to 5 centimeters long; they are borne in axillary inflorescences 3 to 11 centimeters long. The fruit is without a stalk, green but later whitish, rounded but rather flattened, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide, and faintly and closely ribbed, with 4 to 6 cells, each cavity having one seed.

According to Burkill the flowers are very fragrant, so that girls in the Pacific put them in their hair; and Fijians and Samoans string them into necklaces. They open in the evening, and fall before dawn. It is said that a kind of attar is prepared from the flowers in southern India.

Heyne quotes Rumpf, who states that the bark is given in the Dutch Indies to cure chronic dysentery. Crevost and Petelot say that in Indo-China it is applied to wounds and abscesses.

 

Banato

MALLOTUS PHILIPENSIS (Lam) Muell.-Arg.
Croton philippense Lam.
Echinus philippinensis Baill.
Rottlera philippinensis Scheff.
Rottleria manilensis Klotz.

Local names:Apuyot (Sul.); banato (Ibn.,Ig.,Tag.); buas (Ilk.); darandang (Tag.); panagisen (Ibn.); panagisian (Neg.); panagisian (Ibn.,Klg.); pangaplasin (Ilk.); pikal (Sbl.); sala (Tag.,Bis.); tafu (Ibn.); tagusala(P.Bis.); tutula (Tagb.); kamala (Official Name).

Banato is common in thickets and second-growth forests at low altitudes throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Southern China and Formosa, and southward to New South Wales.

This is a tree 4 to 10 meters high, with the branchlets, young leaves and inflorescence covered with brown hair. The leaves are alternate, oblong-ovate, and 7 to 16 centimeters long; the margins are entire toothed, the apex is pointed, and the base rounded. There are two glands on the upper surface of the leaf, which is smooth; the lower surface is somewhat glaucous and hairy, with numerous small, scattered, crimson glands. The male flowers are numerous, about 3 millimeters in diameter, and borne on axillary, solitary, or fascicled spikes 5 to 8 centimeters long. The female flowers occur on solitary racemes 3 to 7 centimeters long, and three cornered. The fruit is somewhat spherical, 6 to 8 millimeters in diameter, unarmed, but densely covered with red or crimson powder. It has 3 cells, each containing a seed, which is black or dark grey, rounded, and slightly flattened on one side.

Kamala is the powder obtained from the glands and hairs, which cover the fruit. It is valued as a fast dye and for its medicinal properties.

Kamala is official in the following pharmacopoeias: Argentine (1); Austrian (6-8); British (1-3); Chilean (1,2); Croatico-Slavonican (1,2); Dutch (2); Finnish (4,5); German (1); Greek (1, 3); Hungarian (1-3); Italian (1-3); Japanese (1-3); Mexican (1-4); Portuguese (3); Russian (1-6); Serbian (1); Swedish (8-9) Swiss (2-4); and United States (5-8) Pharmacopoeias.

According to Perkin, kamala was first investigated by Anderson [Jahresbericht (1855) 669, and in Edin. Journ. New Phil. Trans. 1 (1855) 300], who found the following constituents: water, 3.4 percent; resinous coloring matter, 78.18 per cent; albuminous matter, 7.34 per cent; and ash, 3.84 per cent. Anderson found out that the ethereal extract of kamala yielded three substances; namely, a crystalline compound rottlerin (C11H10O3), a wax (C20H34O4), and a resin, melting below 100oC., to which he gave the formula C30H30O7.

G. Perkin and W. H. Perkin, Jr., in 1886 were able to confirm Anderson’s results regarding the crystalline substance, which they called mallotoxin.

Perkin summarized the results of his investigation of kamala as follows: The ethereal extract of kamala yielded a dark, brownish, resinous product from which six distinct substances have been isolated. Five of these – namely, rottlerin, a substance which he named isorottlerin, a wax and two resins, one of high and the other of low melting point – form the principal constituents, but there is also present a trace of a yellow, crystalline, coloring matter. He also states that kamala contains a minute amount of an essential oil or similar substance, which gives it, when gently warmed, a peculiar odor.

Wehmer records that kamala resin contains the yellow rottlerin (the principal constituent), and also mallotoxin and kamalin. The seeds contain 20 per cent of fixed oil, camul oil, and a bitter glucoside. The bark has 6.5 per cent of tannin.

According to Guerrero, in the Philippines, the red glands of the fruit have been used as an antiherpetic, but are more useful when taken internally as an anthelmintic.

Burkill reports that the leaves, bark, and seeds are used medicinally in India. The leaves and bark are used four poulticing cutaneous diseases, and the pounded seeds are applied to wounds.

Kamala is used as an anthelmintic, vermifuge, and purgative medicine. In India it is used as an external application in herpes circinnatus. Kamala taken internally is said to remove leprous eruptions.

 

Bengal Hemp

CROTALARIA JUNCEA Linn.
Common names: Bengal hempSunn hemp (Eng.).

Local names: Alugbati (Bis.); arogbati (Bik.); dundula (Sul.); grana (Tag.); ilaibakir (Ilk.); libato (Tag.); Malabar nightshade (Eng.); Lo k’uei (Chinese.).

Bengal hemp is found occasionally cultivated in the Philippines. It is apparently naturalized in Ilocos Norte Province. This species was introduced from India.

This plant is an erect, stiff branched, half-woody herb, usually about 1 meter high, with all parts finely hairy. The leaves are simple, linear-oblong to oblong, 4 to 10 centimeters in length. The flowers are scattered, on terminal racemes, and 8 to 20 centimeters long. The calyx has long lobes and is densely covered with brown hairs. The corolla is yellow and about 2.5 centimeters long. The hairy pods are oblong, and about 3 centimeters long.

According to Nadkarni the leaves contain an abundance of mucilage, a little solid fat, and a resin soluble in ether. He further adds that the leaves are refrigerant, demulcent, emetic, purgative, emmenagogue, and abortive. The root is astringent. The seeds are corrective of blood. The bitter leaves are used externally and internally in the form of infusion in gastric and bilious fevers accompanied by skin diseases such as impetigo and psoriasis. They are also given as an emmenagogue. The root is useful in colic and also as an astringent in epistaxis, and mixed with oil, are used to make the hair grow.

 

Bangbangau

OPERCULINA TURPETHUM (Linn.) S. Manso.
Convolvulus maximus Blanco
Convolvulus turpethum Linn.
Ipomoea reptans Llanos
Ipomoea turpethum R. Br.
Ipomoea ventricosa Llanos

Local names: Bangbañgau (Ilk.); burakan (S. L. Bis.); kamokamotihan (Tag.); laplapsut (Ilk.); turpeth root, Indian jalap (Engl.).

Bangbañgau is found in Batan Islands; Ilocos Norte, bontoc, Lepanto, La Union, Rizal, Laguna, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Balabac, Culion, Palawan, Cebu, Ticao, and Mindanao, in waste places, thickets, etc.; it is often common and grows at low and medium altitudes. It is pantropic in distribution.

This is an herbaceous, somewhat hairy vine reaching a length of 5 meters or more. The stems are often purplish, prominently 2- to 4- angled, and narrowly winged. The leaves are entire, ovate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, narrowing to a pointed tip, and broad, somewhat heart-shaped, or straight at the base. The inflorescences (cymes) have few straight flowers and are borne in the axils of the leaves. The sepals are green, and ovate to oblong-ovate; the outer two, 2 to 3 centimeters long, are larger than the inner three, and hairy, somewhat fleshy, and usually purplish on the fruit. The corolla is white, bell-shaped, and about 4 centimeters long, with the limb 4 centimeters wide. The capsules is rounded, being 1 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter, and contains normally 4 black, smooth seeds.

Wehmer records that the roots contain turpethin resin, 4 to 10 per cent. From this resin Spirgatis [Journ. Prakt. Chem. 92 (1864) 97] isolated a glucoside, turpethin, analogous to jalapin. Votocek and Kastner [z.f. Zucker- Ind. Bohmens 31 (1907) 307] isolated another glucoside, turpethin, which is made up of two substances: l-tur-penthein (containing jalapic, ipomoic, and tampicoclic acids) and f­-turpenthein.

The rhizome and root are official in the following Pharmacopoeias: Belgian (2); British (4, 5); Chilean (2); Danish (1); French (1-5); Mexican (1-4); Rumanian (3); Spanish (2-7); and Venezuelan (1,2); and the resin is included in the French (2,3) Pharmacopoeia.

Guerrero reports that in the Philippines the root, either pulverized or in alcoholic tincture, is employed as a drastic purgative.

According to Dey, Kirtikar and Basu, and Waddell, the dried and powdered root-bark is considered cathartic and laxative, resembling jalap in its action. Dymock adds that it is a drastic purgative of phlegmatic humors and bile. With ginger, it is particularly beneficial in rheumatic and paralytic affections. Drury remarks that in India the fresh bark of the root is rubbed with milk and employed as a purgative.

 

Banghai

HYDNOPHYTUM FORMICARUM Jack
Local name: Banghai (Bis.).

Local names: Amaillo (Sp., Tag.); maigold (Engl.).

Banghai is an epiphyte found in mangrove swamps in Luzon (Quezon) and Polillo. It also occurs in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo.

The lower part of the stem is very greatly swollen into a large, rounded, fleshy, tuberous structure containing numerous, labyrinthine cavities which are inhabited by ants. The leaves are opposite, thick, elliptic-obovate, 4 to 10 centimeters long, rounded or very bluntly pointed at the tip, and wedge-shaped at the base. The flowers are solitary or few-fascicled, borne in the leaf axils, pale white, and about 6 millimeters long. The corolla is slaver-shaped, about 5 millimeters long, and cylindric, with four tufts of hairs in the throat. The fruit is juicy, yellowish-red when ripe, broadly ovoid, and about 5 centimeters in length.

Guerrero states that the swollen woody bases of the plants are used in the form of decoction as an efficient remedy for liver and intestinal complaints. Heyne states that the tuber is pounded and used for poulticing for headaches in the Dutch Indies.

 

Bangisi

ARISTOLOCHIA SERICEA Blanco
Aristolochia imbricata Mast.
Bragantia corymbosa F.-Vill.

Local names: Bangisi (Ilk.); pangisi (Ilk.).

This endemic species is found in dry thickets at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon.

Bangisi is a shrubby plant with small flowers and capsules, and covered with hairs. The leaves are narrowly lanceolate, 10 to 16 centimeters long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide, widest near the rounded or rather heart-shaped base, and tapering to a pointed tip. The fruit is oblong or oblong-obovoid and less than 1 centimeter in length.

Concerning this plant Guerrero says that the entire fresh plant is used as a carminative, emmenagogue, and febrifuge. In cases of very painful gastralgia, the root is chewed and the saliva swallowed. The root, macerated in native spirituous liquors, is administered postpartum as a uterine tonic. It has been asserted that this drug is a violent abortive.

 

Bangkal

NAUCLEA ORIENTALIS Linn.
Cephalanthus chinensis Lam.
Cephalanthus orientalis Linn.
Nauclea cordata Roxb.
Nuclea glaberrima Bartl.
Nauclea lutea Blanco
Sarcocephalus cordatus Miq.
Sarcocephalus glaberrimus Miq.
Sarcocephalus orientalis Merr.

Local names: Balikakak (Mag.); bangkal (Tag., S.L. Bis., P. Bis., Mbo.); bulala (Ilk., Pang.); bulubangkal (Bis.); buhibitoan (P. Bis.); hambabalos (Bis.); kabag (Bis.); kabak (C. Bis.); mabalot (Tag.); mlakabak (Bag.); mambog (Bik.); malbog (S.L. Bis.).

Bangkal is found chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium altitudes from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao in most or all islands and provinces. It also occurs in India to Malaya.

This is a smooth tree 7 to 16 centimeters in height. The leaves are leathery, elliptic to oblong-ovate, 11 to 25 centimeters long blunt-tipped and rounded or heart-shaped at the base. The stipules are green, ovate to elliptic, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long. The flower heads are terminal, peduncles, solitary, and 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter. The flowers are white.

Guerrero states that the leaves are applied to boils and tumors. The decocted bark is said to be vulnerary, antidiarrhetic, and a cure for toothache

 

Bani

PONGAMIA PINNATA (Linn.) Merr.
Cytisus pinnatus Linn.
Robinia mitis Linn.
Galedupa indica Lam.
Dalbergia arborea Willd.
Pongamia glabra Vent.
Galedupa maculata Blanco.
Pongamia mitis Merr.
Galedupa pinnata Taub.
Caju pinnatum O. Kuntze.
Pterocarpus flavus Lour.

Local names: Bagnei (Ibn.); balikbalik (Tag.); balu-balu (Sul.); balok (Tag.); balok-balok (Tag., Bik.); balu-balu (Yak.); baluk-baluk (C. Bis.); balotbalot (Tag.); balut-balut (Mag.); bani (Tag., Ilk.,. Sbl., Pamp.); banit (Tag.); baobao (Mbo.); bayog-bayok (Tag., C. Bis.); bayok-bayok (C. Bis.); butong (Bis.); kadel (Tag.); magit (Mag.); manlok-balok (P. Bis.); amarok-barok (Bik., S. L. Bis.); maruk-baruk (C. Bis.); marobahai (Tagb.).

Bani is commonly found throughout the Philippines along the seashore. In some localities it extends inland (Laguna) near the borders of the lakes. It also occurs in the Mascarene Islands, and in tropical Asia, across Malaya to Australia, and in Polynesia.

The tree is smooth throughout the reaches a height of 8 to 25 meters. The leaves are compound 20 to 25 centimeters long, with 5 to 7 leaflets which are smooth, ovate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, the terminal one larger than the others, and pointed at the tip and usually rounded at the base. The flowers are numerous, purplish, pink or nearly white, about 1.5 centimeters long, and are borne on axillary, hairy racemes 15 to 20 centimeters long. The pods are woody, smooth, oblong, 5 to 7 centimeters long, 5 to 8 millimeters thick, shortly beaked at the apex, and containing one seed, which is 3.5 to 5 centimeters long.

The bark is used for making strings and ropes. The seeds yields a red-brown, thick oil known as pongam oil. Chopra calls the oil pongamol or hongay oil. This oil is employed for illuminating and for medicinal purposes and should also be useful for the manufacture of soap and candles. Burkill says that the leaves are resorted to as fodder in India. The roots and seeds are used as a fish poison in Australia and Madoera.

According to Watt, who cites Lepine, the seeds yield 27 percent of yellow oil. Watt quotes the authors of the Pharmacographia Indica who write that the seeds has a bitter taste, and that its bitter principle appears to reside in a resin, and not in an alkaloid. Chopra states that the fatty acids present in the oil include myristic (0.23), palmitic (6.06), stearic (2.19), arachidic (4.30), lignoceric (3.22), dyhydroxysteraric (4.36), linolenic ((0.46), linolic (9.72), and oleic (61.30 percent). The seeds contain traces of an essential oil. Majunath and Rao add behenic acid also to the constituents of the oil. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper reports that the bark contains a bitter alkaloid, soluble in either, alcohol, and water, also an acid resin of a greenish brown color, soluble in ether. The alcoholic extract is composed of a substance analogous to quinovin together with sugar. The watery extract contains much mucilage, which is gelatinized by ferric chloride. A decoction of the bark gives a blue-back color with iodine solution; no indication of the presence of tannin could be obtained from any part of the bark.

Chopra reports that the essential oil of the seeds was injected intravenously in experimental animals and was found to cause a slight rise in blood pressure with indications that the bronchioles were slightly relaxed.

In the Philippines a decoction of the leaves is given to a children with cough. The juice of the leaves is used against itches and herpes. According to Guerrero, the bark is used as an abortive by the natives of the Islands of Guimaras.

Nadkarni quotes Ainslie, who states that the juice of the root is used for cleansing foul ulcers and closing fistulous sores. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper cite Dr. Mootooswamy, who mentions the use of the juice of the root with coconut milk and lime water as a remedy for gonorrhea in Tanjore.

Gimlette and Burkill recommend the young shoots for rheumatism instead of the oil, as in India.

A decoction of the leaves is applied as a bath or fomentation to the rheumatic joints. The juice of the stem, leaves and root, is similarly useful. A poultice of the leaves is used in ulcers infested with maggots; and the juice of the leaves is useful in flatulency, dyspepsia, and diarrhea. The young leaves are applied to bleeding piles.

The bark is useful internally in bleeding piles.

The flowers are used as a remedy or diabetes.

The pulp of the seeds is applied in leprosy. The powdered seeds, after decortication, are given as a specific for whooping cough. The powdered seeds are also supposed to of value as a febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions.

According to Nadkarni, the oil has antiseptic and stimulant healing properties and is applied to skin diseases, scabies, sores, and herpes. For eczema a mixture of the oil and zinc oxide is beneficial. An embrocation made of equal parts of the oil and lemon juice, is applied in muscular and articular rheumatism, in psoriasis, porrigo capitis, and pyteriasis. Sayre states that the oil is especially recommended in pyteriasis versicolor and other skin diseases due to fungus growth. Chopra adds that the oil, internally, has sometimes been used as a stomachic and cholagogue in cases of dyspepsia with sluggish liver.

 

Bankalanan

MELOCHIA CONCATENATA Linn.
Melochia supina Linn.
Melochia corchorifolia Linn.
Riedelia corchorifolia DC.
Geruma subtriloba Blanco

Local names: Bankalanan (Ilk.); kalingan (P. Bis.)  

Bankalanan is a weed common in waste places, open grasslands, fallow fields, etc., throughout the Philippines, at low and medium altitudes in the settled areas. It is pantropic in distribution.

This an erect or spreading, branched, half body shrub, usually less than 1 meter high. The leaves are oblong-ovate, and 2 to 6 centimeters long, with pointed tip and broad, rounded, or heart-shaped base. The flowers are somewhat crowded in terminal or axillary heads. The petals are obovate, white, pink or pale-purple, and about 7 millimeters long. The capsules are depressed-globose, 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter, and slightly hairy.

According to Burkill the leaves are eaten in Northern India and in Annam.

Burkill reports that the leaves are also used for poulticing sores. Skeat and Blagden say that the sap is used for wounds poisoned by Antiaris. Burkill and Haniff state that the leaves are also used for poulticing swellings of the abdomen and any painful are in the region of the abdomen and the heart. Ridley says that the leaves and roots are used for poulticing smallpox. Burkill quotes Alvins, who records that a decoction of the roots and leaves are swallowed for dysentery. Burkill and Haniff say that a simple decoction of the leaves is given to stop vomiting, and a compound decoction, with Millettia and Celosia mixed, for urinary trouble.

 

Bankoro

MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn.
Morinda littoralis Blanco

Local names: Apatot (Ilk.); apatot-nga-basit (Ilk.); bangkudo (Bis., Tag.); bangkuro (C. Bis.); bankoro (Tag., Mag.); bankuro (Tagb.); bankuru (Tag.); galongog (Sub.); lino (Bis.,Tag.); nino (Sul.,Tag., Bis.);rukurok (Kuy.); taeng-aso (Tag.); tumbong-aso (Tag.); Indian mulberry (Engl.).

Bankoro is found chiefly along or near the seashore throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Polynesia.

This is an erect, smooth shrub or small tree 3 to 10 meters in height. The leaves are broadly elliptic to oblong, 12 to 25 centimeters long, and pointed or blunt at the tip. The peduncles are leaf-opposed, solitary, and 1 to 3 centimeters long. The flowers are not bracteolate and form dense, ovoid, or rounded heads, and are 1 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter. The calyx is truncate. The corolla is white and about 1 centimeter long; the limb is 5-lobed and 1 centimeter in diameter. The fruit is fleshy, white or greenish-white, ovoid, and 3 to 10 centimeters in length.

According to Burkill the fruit, which smells like decaying cheese, is eaten in Indo-China with salt. The bark of the roots is used for cleansing the hair and sometimes for cleaning iron and steel. The tree is used in Malaya and Siam as a support for pepper plants. Heyne says that the young leaves may serve as a vegetable in Java.

Wehmer records that the root0bark contains a crystal glucoside, morindine (C27H10O15), and coloring-matter, morindine. The fruit contains volatile oil (morinda oil). Wehmer quotes Van Romburh, who distilled a chemically curious volatile oil from the fruit containing 90 per cent of n-capron and n-capryl acids, and also paraffin, fatty acid, ethyl-alcohol, etc.

Guerrero states that in the Philippines the fruit is used as an emmenagogue. The leaves, when fresh, are applied ulcers to effect a rapid cure. The sap of the leaves is anti-arthritic.

According to Nadkarni the roots are used in India as a cathartic. Ridley, calls a decoction of the bark a coarse, strong astringent and adds that it is used by the Malaya for ague. Dewere writes that in the Congo the bark is reputed to be a febrifuge because of the presence of morindine. Degener states that the leaves and bark of the stem are pounded, cooked, and strained. This liquid is then drunks a tonic. It is a reputed medicine against tuberculosis in Hawaii. Burkill and Haniff state that it is not uncommon throughout the Malaysia to heat and apply the leaves to the chest or to the abdomen for coughs, enlarged spleen, nausea, colic, and fever. Nadkarni, Dymock, Crevost and Petelot, and Dey regard the leaves as deobstruent and emmenagogue in Indo-China. Dymock adds that in Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers and are administered internally as a tonic and febrifuge. Nadkarni adds that the charred leaves made into a decoction with a little mustard are said to be a remedy for infantile diarrhea; with aromatics, the decoction is given in dysentery. The expressed juice of the leaves is applied to relieve pain in gout.

According to Burkill the over-ripe fruit is used as an emmenagogue both in Malaya and in Cochin-China. Gimlette and Burkill state that the juice is recommended for leucorrhoea and sapraemia. It is also recommended by Rumpf for dysuria, and the fruit for diabetes. Heyne reports that the fruit is sometimes used internally in various preparations for swollen spleen, liver diseases, beriberi, hemorrhage, and coughs. Ochse says that in Java the seeds are removed from the ripe fruit; the pulp is mashed with sugar; and the mixture is drunk as a slightly laxative preparation. Degener says that the over-ripe fruit is used also as a poultice and in treating diseases of the kidney. Nadkarni remarks that in India, the fruit is also used as an emmenagogue and a deobstruent. The unripe berries, charred and mixed with salt, are applied successfully to spongy gums. The juice of the fruit made into a syrup and used as a gargle relieves sore throat.

 

Bansalagan

MIMUSOPS PARVIFOLIA R. Br.
Mimusops erythroxylum Llanos
Mimusops elengi Vidal
Mimusops elengi Linn. var. parvifolia Vidal
Mimusops elengi Linn. var. philippensis (sic!) Dubard
Mimusops latericia Elm.

Local names: anosep (Pang.); bansalagin (Tag.,Bik.,P.Bis.); bansalagon (Tag.,Bik.,Bis.); barsik (Tag.); basal (Tag.); kabibi (Tag.,Bis.); ligayan (Sul.); pagagan (Ibn.); pagapagan (Ilk.); palpogan (Ilk.); pamalitien (Ilk.); papagan (Ibn.); pappagin (Ibn.); pappaian (Ibn.); pasek (Tag.); tagatoi (Tag.); talipopo (Bis., Kuy.); tugatoi (Tag.).

Bansalangan is found in forest at low altitudes, often immediately back of the beach, along the seashore from northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. It also occurs in the Moluccas to New Caledonia and tropical Australia.

This tree, which has a dense crown, grows to a height of 15 meters. The leaves are numerous, alternately crowded toward the ends of the smooth twigs, sub elliptic or oblong, about 10 centimeters long, 4 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip, and blunt or somewhat rounded at the base. The flowers are rather small, white, fragrant, borne usually in pairs in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is ellipsoid, yellowish or reddish, and 2 to 3 centimeters long.

The wood is useful in the Philippines and is a favorite for ships’ wheels, marine-spikes, fine tool-handles, etc. the fruit is edible.

Guerrero states that the bark, as well as the ripe fruit, yields a powerful astringent remedy. Both are used as a gargle to strengthen the gums. They are further employed in lotions for ulcers, and in urethral injections for gonorrhea.

 

Barau-barau

CHLORANTHUS OFFICINALIS Blume
Chloranthus inconspicuus Blanco
Chloranthus salicifolius Presl

Local names: Barau-barau (Mang.); sumulampong (Sub.).

Barau-barau is widely distributed in forests at low and medium altitudes from Central Luzon southward to Palawan and Mindanao. It also occurs in India to Western China and southward through Malaya.

In habit it is similar to the previous species. The stems are 30 to 70 centimeters high. The leaves are smooth, obovate-oblong or elliptic, the smaller ones broadly lanceolate averaging 10 to 15 centimeters long, the larger ones being about 5 centimeters wide with pointed tip finely glandular margin and with short stalks. The spikes are about 3 centimeters long in few  branched terminal panicles, upon a 3- to 5 centimeter long peduncle. The flowers are minute. The fruit is white, juicy, 5 to millimeters in diameter, with a relatively large seed.

According to Tavera all parts of the plant have a camphoraceous odor and bitter, aromatic taste. In Java an infusion of the powdered root and the bark of the Cinnamomum culilowan is used to treat puerperal eclampsia. The infusion seems to be efficacious in fever accompanied by debility and suppression of the function of the skin.

Burkill says that a tea is made from the leaves and the roots. The tea has a sudorific action. Ridley states that the roots are boiled then powdered, and the powder rubbed over the body for fever. Stuart reports that the flowers are used to scent tea in china. He adds that the bruised roots are recommended as a poultice in boils and carbuncle. Its action is sudorific and stimulant. It is therefore also suggested for malarial fevers.

 

Bariabai

CERBERA MANGHAS Linn.
Cerbera odollam Gaertn.
Cerbera lactaria Ham.
Elcana seminuda Blanco.

Local names: Arbon (Tabg,); baraibai (Tag.); batano (Ilk.); buta-buti (Tag.);buto-buto(.Bis.); dita (Sul.); duñgas (Mag.); kaliptan (Ilk.); lipata (Tagb.); lipatag (P. Bis.); magkanai (Bik.); maraibai (Tag.); panabulon(P. Bis.); toktok-kalau Tag.); tabau-tabau (Ilk.).

Baraibai is common along the seashore throughout the Philippines. It is also reported from the tropical Asia through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

The plant is usually a shrub, although it may sometimes grow into a small tree up to 6 meters in height. The leaves are shining, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 13 to 25 centimeters long, narrowed and pointed at both ends, and furnished with slender nerves. The flowers are white, fragrant, about 5 centimeters across, and found on terminal inflorescences. The calyx-tube is short, with spreading, pale-green, lanceolate lobes about 2 centimeters long. The corolla-tube is slender, greenish-white, enlarged above, and 4 centimeters long; the 5-lobed limb is white with a purple center, spreading, and about 5 centimeters in diameter. The fruit is drupe, smooth, ellipsoid or ovoid, 5 to 8 centimeters long, and flattened on one side; it has a fibrous endocarp. There is usually one oily seed.

Burkill records that the softwood produces a fine charcoal, which the Siamese used in 1778 for gunpowder. He states that in Penang, the oil of the seed id used as an illuminant. He reports that the Benua mix the sap with “ipoh” to get a poison.

In the Philippines, Guerrero states that the seeds are toxic and used in fishing in small business.

Wehmer quotes de Vrij [S-Ber. Wien. Acad. (1864) 16], who isolated a glucoside from the seeds known as cerberin. He also quotes Greshoff [Ber. Chem. Ges. 23 (1890) 3455], who isolated a bitter principle, odollin. Wehmer records also that the fixed oil content is 57.8 per cent, olein 62 per cent, palmitin and stearin together 38 per cent, etc.

Running through the whole plant is an acid milky juice. Emetic and purgative properties are assigned to this sap and to the leaves, but their use is to be condemned. The bark is purgative.

The green fruit is employed to kill dogs. The fruit, combined with Datura, is a part of a remedy given by native physicians for hydrophobia. The red fruit, when fresh, is used to rub on the leags in cases of rheumatism. The latex seems to have a rubeficient action on the skin. The latex produces blindness when dropped into the eyes. The kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison, producing, when taken internally; vomiting and purging soon followed by collapse and death. It is also emetic and purgative, and, in large doses, irritant; it is used for criminal abortion.

Heyne reports that in Rhio the oil is rubbed on the skin to cure itches, and in Java, along with other heating oils, it is rubbed on the body as a rubefacient to cure colds. Watt says that the Burmese used the oil on their hair as an insecticide.

 

Barsik

OURATEA ANGUSTIFOLIA (Vahl) Baill.
Gomphia angustifolia Vahl.
Campylospermum angustifolium Van Tiegh.
Campylospermum cumingii Van Tiegh.

Local names: Angali (P. Bis.); bansilai (Tag.); barsik (Tag.); bulanan (Bis.); bulokanan (bis.); buluk (P. Bis.); fugauil (Ibn.); inbibinga (Tagb., Kuy.); karanian (Bis.); marabunai (Ibn.); mata-mata (P. Bis.); paguilingon (C. Bis.); pauil (Neg., Ibn.); pinulug (Sul.); talokton (Sbl.).

Barsik is found common in primary forests at a low altitude in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Zambales, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Culion, Busuanga, Palawan, Balabac, Masbate, Romblon, Panay, Guimaras, Negros and Mindanao.  It is also reported from India to Malaya.

This is a smooth, small, much-branched tree.  The leaves are distichous, lanceolate, 6 to 12 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and with toothed margins.  The veins on the blade are very close and numerous, with 2 marginal ones near the edge.  The flowers are numerous, yellow, very small, and borne on large pyramidal, terminal and axillary panicles.  The fruit, which consists of 5 carpels or fewer, surrounded by persistent sepals, is ovoid, 7 to 18 millimeters long, black, and shining.  The seeds are erect, with a green embryo.

According to Kirtikar and Basu, the roots and leaves bitter and are employed in the form of a decoction in Malabar, as a tonic, stomachic, and antiemetic.

 

Barubo

ARISTOLOCHIA PHILIPPINENSIS Warb

Local name: Barubo (Neg.).

This endemic species is found in thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending up to about 900 meters, in Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, Quezon, Laguna, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Palawan; Bancalan; and Negros.

Barubo is a low, shrubby, smooth plant, attaining a height of 1 meter or more. The leaves are oblong or oblong-elliptic, 14 to 21 centimeters long, and 3.5 to 7 centimeters wide, with obtuse base and tapering pointed apex. The fruit is obovoid or oblong-obovoid, 2 to 2.5 centimeters long. This species differs from Aristolochia tagala in the shape of the leaves and in having smaller fruit.

A decoction of the roots is used by the Filipinos as a stomachic and emmenagogue.

 

Barulad

WALTHERIA AMERICANA Linn.
Waltheria indica Linn.

Local names: Barulad (Ilk.); kanding –kanding (C. Bis.).

Barulad is a common weed in dry places in the settled areas of the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. It is pantropic in distribution.

It is an erect, more or less branched, hairy, shrubby or half-woody plant, 0.5 to 1.5 meters in height. The leaves are oblong-ovate or oblong, 3.5 to 9 centimeters in length, rounded or blunt at the tip, slightly heart-shaped at the base, and with toothed margins. The flowers are yellow, sweet-scented, about 5 millimeters long, and borne in dense, shortly peduncled fascicles at the axils of the leaves.

According to Dalziel the powdered plant is astringent and yields, on analysis, mucilage, tannin and sugar, but no alkaloid.

Guerrero tells us that in the Philippines, this plant is considered as a febrifuge and also as an antisyphilitic.

Holland reports that in Surinam the plant is employed as a febrifuge. De Lannesan says that the plant is used in Guadalupe as a febrifuge and as antisyphilitic. Standley state that the plant is mucilaginous, that in tamaulipas a decoction is employed as a remedy for eruptions of the skin, and that in Colima the decoction is used to wash wounds. Martinez records that in Mexico a decoction is used for skin diseases and for cleansing wounds. Dalziel states that the plant is common medicine for infants given often to drink in decoction or to sniff or inhale, at teething or at birth. In Yoruba and in Togo the plant, in infusion, is given both as a drink and a wash over a period of a few weeks to strengthen the child’s resistance against fevers, etc.  Amongst the Hausas the root is considered to be purgative; also a decoction of the plant is believed to be a preventive of syphilis, and, if taken frequently, to afford immunity. It is also drunk by agriculturists as a restorative during the labors of harvesting. In Togo a spoonful of the pulverized plant with hot water is taken morning and evening as a cough medicine; the red-brown powder, examined, had an astringent taste and yielded to analysis and mucilage, tannin, and sugar, but no alkaloid. In the Gold Coast it is used to cause abortion, but in South Africa the root is a remedy for sterility and an astringent for internal hemorrhages. De Grosourdy says that in the Antilles the plant is used as an emollient.

 

Batad

ANDROPOGON SORGHUM (Linn.) Brot.
Holcus sorghum Linn.
Holcus saccharatus Linn.
Sorghum saccharatum Pers.
Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Andropogon sorghum Brot. subsp sativus Hack., var., saccharatus Hack.

Local names: Bakau (Ibn.); batád (Tag., Bik., Bis.); batay (Tag.); bukakau (Ilk.); gau (If.); layagah (Sul.); Sorghum (Eng.).

Several varieties of Sorghum have been grown in the Philippines but have not been extensively cultivated, and none are established. Sorghum is a native of Asia or Africa, and is now cultivated in all warm countries.

The plant is stout, erect, annual, usually about 2 meters high. The stem is often 1 centimeter or more in diameter, and is solid. The leaves are 20 to 50 centimeters long and 2 to 5 centimeters wide. The panicles are dense, 15 to 30 centimeters long, compound and erect. The spikelets are ovoid, more or less pubescent, about 5 millimeters long, pale, purplish, or nearly black, the first glume being hard and shining and the fourth, awnless or sometimes awned.

Wehmer records that the leaves contain a glucoside, dhurrin; enzyme, emulsin; etc.; the young plant is rich in hydrocyanic acid; the fruits have sorghin, etc.

Batád is sometimes cultivated here for forage and for seed. According to Guerrero the fruit of the variety vulgaris yields a decoction, which is much like that of barley and which is used similarly. Chopra reports its use in India as an aphrodisiac.

 

Batau

DOLICHOS LABLAB Linn.
Lablab vulgaris Savi.
Glycine lucida Blanco.
Lablab cultratus DC.

Local names: Baglau (C. Bis.); batau (Tag., Bik., P. Bis.); bulai (Tag.); itab (If., Bon.); parda (Ilk.); parda-i (Ilk.); sibachi (Tag.).

Batau is found commonly cultivated throughout the Philippines in the settled areas. In some regions it is naturalized. It is now pantropic in cultivation.

This is a smooth, twining, annual vine reaching a length of 6 meters or more, with open purplish stems. The leaves are 3-foiolate. The leaflets are entire, ovate, and 7 to 15 centimeters long. The flowers are few to many, pink-purple or nearly white, about 2 centimeters long, on erect, oblong-peduncled racemes 15 to 25 centimeters long. The pods are oblong, flattened, 7 to 12 centimeters long, and about 2 centimeters wide, and contain 3 to 5 seeds.

Batau is grown chiefly in the Philippines for its tender, young pods, which are excellent vegetable. The seeds and the young leaves are also eaten. Chemical analysis of the young pods show they are fairly good sources of calcium and iron. Read reports that the seeds contain protein 23 percent, fat 1.8 percent, ash 3.5 percent, hydrocyanic acid, emulsin, allantoinase and Vitamin C1.

Chopra asserts that the roots are poisonous.

The Malays sometimes use the leaves with rice-flower and turmeric to make a poultice for eczema. An infusion of the leaves is used in gonorrhea. The leaves are regarded as good for colic in Indo-China. The leaves are employed in menorrhagia and leucorrheoa and applied as a poultice for snake bite. The juice of the leaves with lime is applied on tumors or abscesses.

Crevost and Petelot say that in Indo-China the flowers are regarded as emmenagogue. Stuart states that the flowers are prescribed in menorrhagia and leucorrheoa.

Watt reports that the juice from the pods, with salt, is applied in cases of inflammation of the ear and throat.

Hooper says that the Chinese look upon the boiled, ripe seeds as a tonic and carminative. Crevost and Petelot regard the seeds as febrifuge, stomachic, and antispasmodic. Nadkarni affirms that the seeds are aphrodisiac and are also used for stopping nose bleeding.

 

Batino

ALSTONIA MACROPHYLLA Wall.
Echites trifida Blanco
Alstonia batino Blanco

Localnames: Barakir (Bag.); basikalang (Ting.,Ibn.); basikarang (Ilk.); batikalag (Pang.); batino (Pang., Tag.,Bik.); busisi (Ibn.); dalakan (Ilk.); itang-itang (P. Bis.); koanan (P.Bis.); kuyau-kuyau (Bik.);kayauyau (Bik.); pañgalanutien (Ilk.); pañgalisokloen (Pang.); pañgalunadsien (Ilk.); pañgolaksien (Ibn.); sulusilhigan (Tagb.); tañgi-tang (P. Bis.); tuliñgan (Sul.).

Batino is common in open primary and in secondary forest and thicknets at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and New Guinea.

This medicinal plant is a medium-sized tree. The leaves are in whorls of three, oblong-obovate, 10 to 30 centimeters long, 5 to 7 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, and short-stalked. The flowers are small, yellowish-white, and borne on short, terminal cymes. The calyx is small. The corolla is tubular, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, and lobed toward the top. The fruit is a double follicle, pendant, very long, and slender, being 20 to 40 centimeters long. The seeds are small and very flat, with deep-brown, especially along the edges.

In 1934 sharp isolated from the bark four alkaloids: macralstonine (C44H52O5N4), macralstonidine (C41H50O3N4), villalstonine (C40H50O4N4), and a base M. In 1936 Manas Santos isolated a nonphenolic alkaloid, macrophylline, (C45H54O5N4), m. p. 267-268°, which consist of colorless and tasteless crystals.

In the Philippines the bark, in the form of powder, decoction, infusion, tincture, or wine preparation, is used as a febrifuge, a tonic, an antiperiodic, an antidysenteric, and emmenagogue, an anticholeric, and vulnerary. Guerrero states that the bark is used in the same manner, as is that of dita (alstonia scholaris). Sulit says that the leaves, greased with coconut oil and heated, are applied while hot to sprains, bruises, and dislocated joints as a poultice.

 

Bato

CARYOTA MITIS Lour.
Caryota sobolifera Wall.

Local names:  Bató (Tagb.)

Bató is found in forest near stream at a low altitude in Palawan.  It is sometimes cultivated in Manila for ornamental purposes.  It also occurs in Burma and Indo-China to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo.

The stems are 5 to 8 meters high.  The petioles, leaf-sheaths and spathes are scurfily villous.  The leaves are 1.2 to 3 meters long; the leaflets are very obliquely cuneiform, erose and toothed; the upper margin acute.  The spadix is scurfy, axillary and penduloud.  The male buds are cylindric; the male flowers are small, about 5 millimeters long.  The fruit is 10 to 13 millimeters in diameter and bluish-black when ripe, containing one globose seed.

The pericarp contains stinging crystals (raphides).  The seeds inside the poisonous fruit are edible, as is the cabbage, after cooking.  According to Burkill the stems yield a little starch which people of Malacca and Borneo use as sago.\

Caius reports that the juice of the fruit, mixed with bamboo hairs and an extract of toad, is considered a very potent poison in Kelantan.  In Cambodia the soft fibers at the base of the leaf-sheath are used in the cauterization of wounds.

 

Bauang

ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn.

Local names: Ajos (Bis.); bauang (Tag.); garlic (Engl.).

Bauang, or garlic, is a native of southern Europe, but is now widely cultivated in most parts of the world. It is rather extensively grown in Batangas and to a limited extent elsewhere in the Philippines.

Garlic is a low herb 30 to 60 centimeters high. The true stem is much reduced. The bulbs are broadly ovoid, 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter, and consist of several, densely crowded, angular, truncated tubers. The leaves are linear and flat. The umbels are globose, nearly always with bulbs and with many flowers. The sepals are oblong, greenish white, or more or less tinged with purple. The stamens are not exerted from the perianth.

Garlic is very widely used by Filipinos in the flavoring of dishes.

Mineral content and food value of Allium satirum

Constituents

Fresh sample

Oven-dried sample

Ash

 

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Moisture

88.01 – 91.01

 

 

Ash

1.03 – 1.24

13.78

 

Phosphorus as P2O3

0.16

1.83

13.25

Calcium as CaO

0.13

1.43

10.36

Iron as Fe2O3

0.007

0.08

0.58

Proteins

2.20

 

 

Fats

0.32

 

 

Carbohydrates

7.27

 

 

Crude fiber

1.17


Gildemeister reports that upon distillation of the entire plant 0.005 to 0.009 per cent volatile oil was obtained. It has a yellow color, and possesses an intense very unpleasant garlic odor. According to Chopra the active principle of garlic is the volatile oil. Its specific gravity at 14.5 is 1.0525 and it is optically inactive. Read adds that the bulb contains alliin, allisin, allyl disulphide, allyl propyldisulphide, inulin, choline, myrosinase. The leaves contain protein 1.2 per cent, fat 0.03 per cent, sulphide, v.s.

Bruntz and Jaloux affirm that the bulb is official in the Austrian (1-5); Belgian (1); Danish (1-2); Dutch (1); French (1-4); Finnish (1); German (1); Mexican (1-4); Norwegian (1); Portuguese (1-3); Rumanian (1); Serbian (1); Spanish (1-6); Swedish (11-7); United States (1,2); and Venezuelan (1-2); Pharmacopoeias.

According to Bentley and Trimen the oil when purified is colorless, or great refracting power, and lighter than water. It boils at 284o.

The garlic is reported by Bentley and Trimen, and Nadkarni as stimulant, carminative, and having the properties of a vermifuge. Rico states that the anthelmintic action of garlic is due to its allyl disulphide content. Grieve adds that it is diaphoretic, diuretic, and expectorant. This is due to the active constituents of the oil. He says that, externally, the bulb is used as a resolvent. It is administered in the form of oil, liniment, a poultice, a decoction, and powder.

In the Philippines the bulbs are prescribed for high blood pressure. Father de Sta. Maria says that the bulbs are eaten fresh or burned for coughs of children and also used as diuretic. Guerrero reports that the bulbs, when applied to the temples in the form of a poultice, are considered to be revulsive in headache, and are used also to mitigate the pain caused by the bites of insects, scorpions, centipedes, and the like.

According to Nadkarni the oil, prescribed internally, acts as a stimulant to prevent recurrence of the cold fits of intermittent fevers. It is also administered with common salt in affections of the nervous system and in headache, flatulence, hysteria, etc. Nadkarni adds that the juice is applied to the nose in the cases of fainting. Externally the garlic is useful. As a liniment it acts beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections, relaxed sore throat, in asthma, general and facial paralysis, gout and sciatica. Bruised garlic or garlic with lard is applied to the chest as a poultice. Mustard or coconut oil in which garlic has been fried is an excellent application of scabies and for maggots interesting ulcers, and is applied to indolent tumors. It is also used in paralytic and rheumatic affections. The juice of the bulb with common salt is applied to bruises and sprains and also relieve neuralgia and earache. Garlic is rubbed over ringworm with a relieving effect. Grieve adds that syrup of garlic is an invaluable medicine for asthma, hoarseness, coughs, etc. The freshly expressed juice, diluted with an equal amount of water or with wine, is successful in the treatment of tuberculosis. She adds that in World War I, the fresh, raw juice was widely employed as an antiseptic in the control of suppuration of wounds. She states further that garlic was employed as a specific for leprosy. In Mexico Martinez asserts that the fresh bulb is usually eaten as a preventive against tuberculosis. Garlic produces copious diuresis, and is used in dropsy or anasarca. Burnett reports that in France the diluted juice is much employed in asthma, catarrh, and torpor of the abdominal viscera. In large doses, he says, garlic is irritant and capable of producing inflammation of the alimentary canal. Kirtikar and Basu and Sanyal and Ghose record that in India the garlic juice, diluted with water, is applied externally to prevent the hair from turning grey. Chopra and Sanyal and Ghose state that the dilute juice of garlic is used as eardrops in earache and deafness. De Grosourdy writes that garlic is a common vermifuge in the Antilles. Also the bulb is ground and is applied as rubefacient. The juice is considered a popular antiseptic. Guibourt considers the bulb as anthelmintic and prophylactic.

 

Bayabang

NEPHROLEPIS CORDIFOLIA (Linn.) Presl.
Polypodium cordifolium Linn.
Nephrolepis tuberosa Presl.
Aspidium tuberosum Bory

Local names: Bayabang (Iv.); olaluent (Ig.); bangduan (Ig.).

Bayabang is terrestrial or an epiphytic fern, found at all altitudes in Batanes Islands, in the Provinces of Bontoc, Benguet, Ifugao, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, and Laguna in Luzon; and in Cotabato, Lanao, and Zamboanga Provinces in Mindanao. It is pantropic and extra tropical in distribution.

The rhizomes are densely clothed with brownish scales. The stipes are tufted and glossy, 2.5 to 25 centimeters long. The fronds are smooth, linear-lanceolate, 20 to 60 centimeters long and 3 to 5 centimeters wide. The pinnae are numerous, and often imbricated, 0.4 to 0.8 centimeter wide, the apex more or less bluntish; the base heart-shaped. The sori are submedial, nearer the edge than the midrib; the indusium is usually reniform.

The fresh fronds are made into a decoction and used as a drink for coughs.

 

Bayabas

PSIDIUM GUAJAVA Linn.
Psidium cujavus Linn.
Psidium pyriferum Linn.
Psidium pomiferum Linn.
Psidium aromaticum Blanco

Local names: Bagabas (Ig.); bayabas (Ibn.,Ilk.,Tag.,C.Bis.); bayauas (Bik.); bayabo (Ibn.); biabas (Sul.); gaiyabat (If.); gaiyabit (If.); geyabas (Bon.); guayabas (Tag.); gaiyabat (Ilk.); kalimbahin (Tag.); tayabas(Tag.); guava (Engl.).

Bayabas is found throughout the Philippines in all islands and provinces and is usually very common in thickets and secondary forest at low altitudes, ascending to at least 1, 500 meters. It was introduced from tropical America, and become thoroughly naturalized. It is pantropic in distribution.

This plant, which is somewhat hairy reaches a height of 8 meters. The young branches are 4-angled. The leaves are opposite, oblong to elliptic, and 5 to 12 centimeters long, the apex, being pointed and the base usually rounded. The peduncles are 1- to 3-flowered. The flowers are white, 3 to 3.5 centimeters across, solitary or two to three together. The fruit is rounded, ovoid or obovoid, 4 to 9 centimeters long, and green, but yellowish when ripe, and contains many seeds embedded in aromatic, pink, edible pulp.

Bayabas is one of the commonest and the best known fruits in the Philippines. A wild tree, it grows abundantly in settled areas. The fruit is a favorite with the Filipinos and is extensively used in the manufacture of jellies owing to the presence of a considerable amount of pectin. The ripe fruit is eaten as a vegetable and used as seasoning for “singigang”, etc.

Wehmer records that the leaves contain fixed oil 6 per cent, and volatile oil 0.365 per cent. The essential oil contains eugenol, mallic acid, and tannin 8 to 15 per cent. The fruit contains “glykosen” 4.14 to 4.3 per cent, saccharose 1.62 to 3.4 per cent, protein 0.3 per cent, etc.; and the ash yields 75 per cent of CaCO3. The bark contains 12 to 30 per cent of tannin. The roots are also rich in tannin.

The roots are official in the Mexican (1-4) pharmacopoeia; and the leaves in the Dutch (4) and Mexican (1-4) Pharmacopoeias.

In the Philippines the astringent, unripe fruit, the leaves, the cortex of the bark and roots – through more often the leaves only – in the form of a decoction, are used for washing ulcers and wounds. Guerrero states that the bark and leaves are astringent, vulnerary, and when decocted, antidiarhetic.

Sanyal and Ghose states that the bark is used in the chronic diarrhea of children and sometimes adults; half an ounce of the bark is boiled down with six ounces of water to 3 ounces; the dose (for children) is one teaspoonful 3 to 4 times a day. Dey says that the root-bark has been recommended for chronic diarrhea. In a decoction of ½ oz. in 6 oz. of water, boiled down to 3 oz. and given in teaspoonful doses; and also recommended as a local application in prolapsus and of children. Nadkarni states that a decoction of the root-bark is recommended as a mouthwash for swollen gums.

Kirtikar and Basu say that the leaves, when chewed, are said to be remedy for toothache. Martinez states that the decocted leaves are used in Mexico for cleansing ulcers. Nadkarni reports that the ground leaves make an excellent poultice. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper quote Descourtliz, who places this plant among the aromatic antispasmodics; a decoction of the young leaves and shoots is prescribed in the West Indies for febrifuge and antispasmodic baths, and an infusion of the leaves for cerebral affections, nephritis, and cachexia; the pounded leaves are applied locally for rheumatism; an extract is used for epilepsy and chorea; and the tincture is rubbed into the spine of children suffering from convulsions. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper and Rodriguez mention that the leaves have also been used successfully as an astringent in diarrhea. Standley states that in Mexico the leaves are said to be a remedy for itches. Rodriguez writes that in Uruguay, a decoction of the leaves is used as a vaginal and uterine wash, especially in leucorrhoea.

In Costa Rica, according to Pittier, a decoction of the flower buds is considered an effective remedy for diarrhea and flow of blood. Sanyal and Ghose report that the fruit is astringent and has a tendency to cause constipation. Martinez says that the fruit is anthelmintic in Mexico. Nadkarni states that guava jelly is tonic to the heart and good for constipation. The ripe fruit is good aperient, and should be eaten with the skin, for without it, costiveness results. The unripe fruit is said to be indigestible, causing vomiting and feverishness, but it is sometimes employed in diarrhea. Water in which the fruit is soaked is good for diabetes.

 

Bayan

MEMECYLON OVATUM Smith
Memecylon parviflorum Blanco
Memecylon tinctorium Blanco
Memecylon lucidum Presl
Memecylon prasinum Naud.
Memecylon edule F.- Vill.
Memecylon edule Roxb. Var. ovatum C. B. Clarke
Memecylon umbellatum Merr.

Local names: Bayan (Tag.); doik (Pang.); gisian (Tag.); kandong (Ilk.); kilos (Tag.); kulis (Sbl.); malabahi (Bik.); malabanggi (Kuy.); sagingsing (Bis.); sisirai (Ilk.).

Bayan is common in thickets at a low altitude, especially along or near the seashore but also extending inland from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. It also occurs in India to Malaya.

This medicinal plant is a smooth shrub or small tree reaching a height of 8 meters. The leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate to oblong-elliptic, 6 to 14 centimeter long, green, shining, and usually pointed at both ends. The flowers are faintly scented, numerous, about 7 millimeters across, deep-blue or purple and borne on axillary, solitary or fascicled cymes, and 2 to 4 centimeters long. The calyx is funnel-shaped. The petals are about 2 millimeters long. The fruit is rounded, 7 to 10 millimeters in diameter, fleshy, and dark-purple.

According to Guerrero, the roots in decoction are used in certain irregularities of menstruation, and the leaves in infusion are employed as an astringent in ophthalmia.

 

Bayating

TINOMISCIUM PHILIPPINENSE Diels

Local Names: Bayating (Pamp.); kalumpangi (Bag.).

Bayating is an endemic plant found in Pangasinan, Quezon, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; and in Lanao and Davao Provinces in Mindanao, in forests at low and medium altitudes.

It is a stout, woody vine. The stem has gray bark and milky sap. The leaves are thin, ovate, 15 to 25 centimeters broad, smooth except at the nerves beneath, with a broad rounded base and pointed tip, on long petioles, up to 15 centimeters in length. The flowers are yellow, fragrant, about 1 centimeter across, and occurring in considerable numbers on long, slender, drooping branches, which grow in clusters, usually on the stems.

According to Feliciano and Santos the crystalline compound, isolated, consisted of white crystals with melting point 200-200.5°C. Chemical tests on the crystalline compound gave results identical with those of picrotoxin.

Piamonte reports that the fruit is used as fish poison.

According to Guerrero the white milky sap diluted with water is used as eyewash.

 

Bayog

PTEROSPERMUM DIVERSIFOLUM Blume
Pterospermum hastatum Blanco
Pterospermum acerifolium Rolfe.

Local names: Bagud (Tag.); bayong (Tag.); baloi (Ilk.); balaibayan  (Sb.); baroi (Neg., Ilk.); bayog (Tag., Bik., Pamp., P.Bis.); barog-bayog (Chab.); bayok (Tag., Bik., P.Bis.); bayug (Tag., Sul.); bayuk (Tag.); dibual (Yak.); kabislak (Sul.); malibago (Tag.); rayok (Tagb.); talingauana (Sbl.).

Bayog is common in forest at low and medium altitudes from Cagayan to Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Palawan, Ticao, Masbate, Guimaras, Negros, Mindanao, and Basilan. It also occurs in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and the Moluccas.

The tree grows from 4 to 10 meters in height. The leaves are oblong to oblong-obovate, 15 to 25 centimeters in length, abruptly pointed at the apex and broad or heart-shaped at the base. The upper surface of the blade is smooth, and the lower surface pale and densely hairy. The flowers are white, 12 to 11 centimeters long, and borne singly or in pairs in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a woody, oblong, five-angled capsule about 15 centimeters in length.

The bast, which is pinkish cinnamon, has very tittle tensile strength and is not commonly used for rope-making. The bark of this tree is used for dyeing fish-nets and cloth.

According to Guerrero, the bark and the flowers, charred and mixed with the glands of Mallotus philippensis, are employed smallpox to cause suppuration.

 

Betis

MADHUCA BETIS (Blanco) Merr.
Azola betis Blanco
Payena betis F.-Vill.
Illipe betis Merr.
Bassia betis Merr.

Local names: Bakaiau (Pang.); baniti (Bik.); banitis (Bik.); betis Tag., Pamp., Bik.); manilig (Mag.); papagai (Ibn.); papagan (Ibn.); piañga (Ibn., Ilk.); Piañgan (Ibn.).

Betis is found only in the Philippines, in primary forest at low altitudes in Cagayan, Cavite, Rizal, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon.

This is a good-sized tree reaching a height of 30 meters. The leaves are clustered at the ends of branchlets, oblong-obovate, 20 to 25 centimeters long, 7 to 9 centimeters wide, smooth on the upper surface, very hairy, beneath, and pointed at both ends. The flowers are numerous, hairy, pale white, and borne in rounded clusters. The fruits is ellipsoid, grows upon thickened, smooth stalks, and 3 to 4 centimeters long, and brownish, with a large somewhat shining seed.

The wood is pale red, hard, and heavy., it is rarely attacked by white ants, and is used for building wharfs, bridges, and ships, for foundation post of house, and for other purposes. The seeds furnish an oil used for illuminating.

According to Guerrero, the bark and leaves of the plant are said to be useful for curing the stomach pains of children. The latex applied to the abdomen is said to expel worms. The powder of the bark provokes sneezing.

 

Bias-bias

CYPERUS STOLONIFERUS Retz.
Commelina polygama Blanco

Local names: Alibangon (Tag); bias-bias (Tag., Pamp); kabilau (Bis); kuhasi (Iv.); kulkul-lasi (Ilk.); sobilan (Bis.); uligbongon (Tag.).

Bias-bias occurs commonly in open grasslands and waste places in the settled areas, at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines.  It is also found in tropical Africa and Asia to Japan and Malaya.

The plant is mucilaginous.  It is a slender, creeping or ascending, branched herbs, and usually pubescent.  The stem root at the nodes.  The leaves are oval, 4 to 7 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. The spathes are 1 to 3 together, green, funnel-shaped, compressed, about 1.5 centimeters long and wide.  The flowers are blue, with long stalks in anthesis, fascicled, several in each spathe, with the petal 3 to 4 millimeters long.  The capsules are 4 to 5 millimeters long.

According to Burkill the leaves are edible, and are famine food in India.  Heyne reports that they are also eaten in Batavia, and have been seen on sale in Chinese shops in Singapore although it is not known how the Chinese use them.

According to Guerrero the entire plant, in decoction, is used as an emollient collyrium, and it is also employed to combat strangury.  Chopra states that the plant is demulcent, refrigerant, and laxative.  Daruty says that it is also astringent.  Dalziel mentions that in Camerons the stem is used for probing a wound.

 

Bias-biasan

SCIRPUS ARTICULATUS Linn.
Paspalum cartilaineum Presl.
Paspalum kora Willd.
Paspalum villosum Blanco
Paspalum sumatrense Roth.
Paspalum thunbergii Kunth.

Local names: Angangsug (Ig.); bias-biasan (S. L. Bis.); bubulis (Sub.); paragis (Tag.); sabung-sabungan (Tag.).

This is found mostly in open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters throughout the Philippines, often common and somewhat variable. It is pantropic in distribution.

The plant is tufted, erect, rather slender, nearly glabrous, somewhat wiry and 40 to 80 centimeters high. The leaves are flat, 6 to 15 centimeters long and 5 to 8 millimeters wide. The spikes number 3 or 4 usually spreading 4 to 8 centimeters long. The spikelets are pale 2-seriate, and about 2 millimeters long.

The juice expressed from the stem is useful for corneal opacity.

According to Guerrero a decoction of the roots and rhizomes is used as an alternative in childbirth Waddell reports cases of poisoning in India from eating the grains of this rice.

 

Bias-pugo

AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn.
Celosia nana Blanco
Ammannia debilis Blanco
Ammannia aegyptiaca Llanos
Ammannia octandra Llanos

Localnames:Apoy-apoyan (Pang.,Tag.); bias-pugo(Tag.); parapitañgit (Pamp.); blistering ammannia (Engl.)

Bias-pugo is found in open, damp, waste places throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. It is often abundant. It also occurs in tropical Asia and Africa and through Malaya to tropical Australia.

This plant is erect, branched, smooth, slender, annual, more or less purplish herb 10 to 50 centimeters in height. The stems are somewhat 4-angled. The leaves are oblong, oblanceolate, or narrowly elliptic, about 3.5 centimeters long – those on the branches very numerous, small, and 1 to 1.5 centimeters long – with narrowed base and pointed or somewhat rounded tip. The flowers are small, about 1.2 millimeters long, greenish or purplish, and borne in dense axillary clusters. The capsules are nearly spherical, depressed, about 1.2 millimeters in diameter, purple, and irregularly circumssciss above the middle. The seeds are black.

According to Nadkarni, the constituents are resin, glucose, and perhaps an active principle.

Guerrero asserts that this plant is caustic, and is used in place of catharides for plaster.

Kirtikar and Basu and Nadkarni report that the leaves are exceedingly acrid, irritant, and vesicant, and are being used by the country people (in India) to raise blisters, being applied to the skin for half an hour or a little longer. Their ethereal tincture has been tried with success and found equal to liquor epispasticus. The leaves or the ashes of the plant, mixed with oil, are applied to cure herpetic eruptions. Dey says that the fresh, bruised leaves have been used in skin diseases as a rubefacient and as an external remedy for ringworm and parasitic skin affection.

 

Biga

ALOCASIA MACRORRHIZA (Linn.) Schott.
Arum macrorrhizon (Linn.)
Calla maxima Blanco
Arum grandifolium Blanco
Calla badian Blanco
Alocasia indica Naves

Localnames: Aba (Ibn.); aba-aba (Ig.); badiang (Tag.,Bis.); bagiang (Bis.); bira (Ilk.); biga (Ilk.,Bis., Pamp.); bilbila (Bon.); gabi (Bik.); galiang (Bis.); gandus (Pamp.); malabiga (Tag.); ragiang (Bis.); sininaba(Ilk.); talipan (Bik.); taliang (Bis.)

Biga is found wild in old clearings and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. It is commonly cultivated here as an ornamental. It also occurs in India to Malaya. In other tropical countries it is planted for ornamental purposes.

Biga is a coarse erect plant the trunk of which is stout, up to 2 meters in height. The leaves are very large, broadly ovate, the larger ones up to 1.5 meters in length, with the margins slightly undulate; the apex pointed, and the base deeply cordate, not at all peltate. The petioles are long, and very stout. The spathes are peduncled; with the tube 4 to 5 centimeters long; the blade yellowish to yellowish-green, up to 23 centimeters long, and when spread, 9 centimeters wide, often slightly mottled with purple inside. The pistillate part of the spadix is 3 to 4 centimeters long, about 15 centimeters in length. The berries are red when mature, globose or ovoid, fleshy.

The stems and corms of this plant are used in the Philippines as food when better kinds are scarce. They contain starch.

The stems, corms, leaves, and petioles contain numerous, needlelike, stinging crystals of calcium oxalate (raphides). These are destroyed by boiling or roasting.

According to Father Blanco the petioles, in a nearly cayed state, are ground together, placed in a piece of cloth with live coals, and used as an application to alleviate toothache.

According to Burkill the application of the acrid juice gives instant relief to stings of the giant nettle (Laportea). In Java the chopped-up roots and leaves may be used as an application for pains in the joints. They act as rubefacient. In India the natives employ the rhizomes as external stimulant or rubefacient in various affections. Chopra adds that it is used also for fevers in India.

 

Bignai

ANTIDESMA BUNIUS (Linn.) Spreng.
Stilago bunius Linn.
Antidesma ciliatum Presl.
Antidesma cordifolium Presl.
Antidesma cordifolium Presl.
Antidesma bunius Spreng. Var. cordifolium Muell.-Arg.
Sapium crassifolium Elm.
Antidesma crassifolium Merr.

Local names: Bignai (Tag.,Sbl., Bik., Mang.); bignai-kalabau (Tag.); bungai (Ilk., Bon., Ibn., P. Bis., C. Bis.);  bugnei (Bon., If.); bundei (Ibn.); dokodoko (Bag.); isip (Pamp.); mutagtamanuk (Bag.); oyhip (Sbl.); paginga (Ibn.); vunnai (Ibn.).

Bignai is common in northern Luzon to Mindanao, in thickets, etc., in the vicinity of towns and settlements, and is occasional in forests.

This is a small, smooth, dioecious tree, 4 to 10 meters high. The leaves are shiny, oblong, 8 to 20 centimeters in length, pointed at the tip, and rounded or pointed at the base. The spikes are axillary or terminal, simple, and usually 5 to 15 centimeters long. The flowers are small and green. The male flowers are about 1.5 millimeters in diameter and are borne on spikes, while the female flowers grow out on racemes. The fruit is fleshy, red, acid, edible, ovoid, and about 8 millimeters long. It contains a single seeds.

Bignai makes an excellent jam and wine. Analyses of the fruit show that it is a very good source of calcium and id fair in iron.

According to Heyne, the bark is poisonous, containing an alkaloid and is used medicinally, as also are the leaves. Burkill states that the leaves are not poisonous, or not, at any rate, when young, and are eaten with rice.

Drury reports that the ripe fruit is subacid, and is esteemed for its cooling qualities. The leaves are acid and diaphoretic, and when young are boiled with pot-herbs, and employed by the natives in syphilitic affections.

 

Bikal-bohoi

SCHIZOSTACHYUM DIELSIANUM (Pilger) Merr.
Dinochloa dielsiana Pilger

Local name: Bikal-boboi (Bis.).

This endemic bamboo has been exported from Palawan only, in thickets and forests at low altitude. According to Merrill this species is by no means certainly distinct from Schizostachyum diffisum (Blanco) Merr., which is our common “bikal”.

This bamboo has a sprawling and scandent habit. The stems are about 3 centimeters in diameter, and widely branched. The leaves are linear, about 2 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide, with rounded base. The inflourescences are diffused, with long slender branches. The spikes are somewhat compressed. The fruit is a nutlet in a leathery rind, which bears a slender point.

According to Guerrero a decoction of the rhizomes makes a refreshing beverage, and the young shoots are used to dissipate the opacity of the cornea.

 

Bikas

MIKANIA CORDATA (Burm.) B. L. Robinson
Eupatorium cordatum Burm.
Eupatorium scandens Linn.
Eupatorium volubile Vahl
Knautia sagittata Blanco
Mikania scandens (Linn.) Willd.
Mikania volubilis Willd.

Local names: Bikas (Tag.); detidid (Ig.); tamburakan (Tagb.); uoko (Bon.); climbing hemp weed (Engl.).

Bikas is a smooth vine found from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao in most islands and provinces, often common, in thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 meters. It is probably a native of tropical America and is now pantropic in distribution.

The leaves are long-petioled, deltoid-ovoid or ovate heart-shaped, and 4 to 10 centimeters long, with pointed tip, rounded, heart-shaped, or truncate base, and toothed margins. The heads are 4-flowered, cylindric, 6 to 9 millimeters long, and borne in compound inflorescences. The achenes are smooth, glandular, linear-oblong, and 2.5 to 3 millimeters in length. The pappus is composed of one series, whitish or salmon colored.

The leaves are official in the Venezuelan (1,2) Pharmacopoeia.

Dalziel reports that the plant is used as a cover crop to prevent erosion. The leaves are used in some places as a soup vegetable, and can be used as cattle fodder. In southern Nigeria a decoction is given for coughs, and the leaf-juice is a remedy for sore eyes. In Portuguese East Africa, Dalziel quotes de Almeida as saying that the Tongas use the plant as a remedy for snake and scorpion bite. Browne reports that an infusion of the plant is given in affections of the stomach and intestines.

According to Burkill and Haniff the leaves are used by the Malaya for rubbing on the body in itches. Heyne says that in Java they are used for poulticing the wound of circumcision and other wounds. Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk state that the leaves are applied to wounds also in southern Africa.

 

Bilogo

ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn.
Diosma serrata Blanco
Celastrus polybotrys Turcz.

Local names: Bilogo (Tag.); lagete (Tag.); langitngit (Tag.).

Bilogo is found in thickets and second-growth forests at low altitudes in Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, and Cavite Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Palawan and Mindanao. It also occurs in India through Malaya to New Caledonia.

This is a smooth woody vine, reaching a length of from 4 to 10 meters. The branches are pendulous. The leaves are ovate to elliptic-ovate 5 to 12 centimeters long, and toothed at the margins. The flowers are numerous, greenish or greenish-white and borne on lax, pendulous panicles 7 to 18 centimeters long and about 5 millimeters in diameter. The fruit is ovoid or subglobose, 7 to 9 millimeters long, yellow, three-celled and usually three-seeded. A fleshy aril surrounds the red seeds.

According to Nadkarni the seeds contain an oil, a bitter resinous principle, tannin, and ash (5 percent). The oleum nigrum – an empyreumatic black oil – is obtained by the destructive distillation of the seeds. Kumaraswamy and Manjunath conducted a chemical examination of the fatty oil from the seeds and report the following constants: Specific gravity 25°/25° - 0.9586, refractive index at 30° - 1.4747, saponification value – 239.2, acid value – 44.4 iodine value (Hanus) – 102.9, Reichert-Meissl value-62.8, acetyl value-130.1, unsaponifiable matter-5.7 percent, Hehner Value- 75.2 percent.

Wehmer reports that the fatty oil of the seeds contains colasterol, and a coloring matter, chromogen. Boorsma examined the leaves, finding a small amount of scarcely poisonous alkaloid, apparently, with it, a glucoside.

According to Guerrero, the seeds of this species, when pulverized, are administered as an antirheumatic and are also used in cases of paralysis. The sap of the leaves is given as an antidote in cases of opium poisoning.

Heyne reports that in Java the leaves are used in dysentery.

Nadkarni writes that a decoction of the seeds with or without the addition of aromatics, is given in rheumatism, gout, paralysis and leprosy.

Nadkarni states that the oil, with benzoin cloves nutmegs and mace added, is said to be a sovereign remedy for beriberi and a powerful stimulant. The oil is used as an ointment for relieving rheumatic pains of a malarious character and for paralysis. Chopra declares that the oil is reputed to be a nerve-stimulant and a brain tonic.

 

Biniuang

CLERODENDRON BETHUNEANUM Low
Clerodendron squamatum Hallier f.
Clerodendron squamatum Vahi var. bethuneana Bakh.

Local names: Anoran (Tagb.); antutuñgau-pula (Sul.); biniuang (Tag.); guanton (C. Bis.); kali-kali (Sul.); mata-kubo (P. Bis.); maitum (Mbo.); udan-udan (Sub.).

Biniuang is found in thickets, clearing, and secondary forest at low altitudes in Bataan, Quezon, Laguna, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Palawan, Balabac, Polillo, Catanduanes, Masbate, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Mindanao, and Basilan. It also occurs in Borneo and Celebes.

This is a small shrub growing to a height of 1 to 2 meters. The branches are green, straked with purple, and four-angled. The lower leaves grow on long stalks and are heart-shaped, very large, measuring up to 32 centimeters wide; they have pointed tips and obscurely toothed margins. The upper leaves become gradually smaller and finally pass into bracts.  The panicles are large, pyramidal in form, lax, terminal, and 50 to 90 centimeters long. The flowers are crimson. The calyx is large, inflated, conical, and almost winged at the angles, the five lobes being elliptic or ovate and about 10 millimeters long. The corolla-tube, which is a little longer than the calyx, divides into five, oblique, spreading, oblong lobes. The stamens are purple, and very long – 5 to 6 centimeters in length. The fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter, usually 2-lobed, and clasped by persistent calyx lobes.

Guerrero states that an infusion of the leaves is used in the Philippines by women during pregnancy.

 

Binunga

MACARANGA TANARIUS (Linn.) Muell.-Arg.
Ricinus tanarius Linn.
Mappa tanarius Blume

Local Names: Alungabun (Bag.); anabun (Bag.); bagambang (Tag.); bilan (Pamp.); bilua (Pamp.); biluan (Tag.); biluan-lalaki (Tag.); bilunga (Tag.); bingua (Is.); binonga (Tag.,Pamp.,P.Bis.); binuan (Tagb.); binuang (Tag.); bingua (C.Bis.); binunga (Tag.,Kuy.,P. Bis); binungan (Tag.); binuan (Tagb.); gamu (Ibn.); ginabang (Ting.,Ig.); himindang (Bik.); kinabang (Ig.); labauel (Ig.); lagou (C.Bis., Bag.); lagaon (Mbo.);ligabun (Mbo.); lungaban (Tagk.); lingabunga (Sub.); lingbunga (Sul.); lungakan (Bag.); maasim (Tag.); mindano (Bik.); minunga (Tag.,Bik.,Mbo); sabauil (Ilk.); samaet (Ibn.); samak (Ilk., Ting.); samar (Ilk.); samuk(Ibn.).

Binunga is found in thickets and second-growth forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. It is also found in the Andaman Islands and the Malay Peninsula to Southern China and from Formosa southward to mortheastern Australia.

This plant is a small, dioecious tree reaching a height of 4 to 8 meters. The leaves are peltate, ovate to oblong-ovate, and 10 to 25 centimeters long, with entire or toothed margins; the base is rounded and the apex, pointed. The male flowers are small and borne on slender, branched peduncles, which are shorter than the leaves. The female flowers are usually found in simple panicled spikes or racemes. The capsules are 10 to 12 millimeters in diameter, of 2 or 3 cocci, and covered with pale, waxy glands, and with soft, scattered, elongated, spinelike processes.

According to Brown, a glue used for fastening together the parts of musical instruments, such as guitars, violins and the like, is obtained from the bark of this tree. Heyne mentions a similar use in Java.

The bark and leaves of this tree are extensively utilized in the manufacture of a popular fermented drink known as “basi”. The fruit is sometimes used for the same purpose.

According to Burkill, the tannin in the bark is used in the Moluccas to toughen fishing-nets. Bartlett states that the bark is used in Sumatra for making food containers.

Guerrero declares that the powdered root is used as an emetic in fevers, and that in decoction it is administered to cure haemoptysis. Heyne states that a decoction of the bark is given in dysentery.

 

Binungang

MACARANGA GRANDIFOLIA (Blanco) Merr.
Croton grandifolius Blanco
Macaranga mappa F.-Vill.
Macaranga porteana E. Andre

Local names: Abing-abing (Tag.); biluak (Tag.); bilaun (Tag.); binuang (Tag.); binungang-malapad (Tag.); bongbong (Bis.); bilura (Tag.); bingabing (Tag.); ginabang (Ilk.); ginabang-dakkel (Ilk.); hinoso (Tag.);kinabang (Ig.).

Binungang-malapad is found only in the Philippines in second-growth forests at low altitudes, where it is locally abundant. It grows in Cagayan, Benguet, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, Laguna and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro.

This is a tree 5 to 10 meters in height. The large leaves are very characteristic as they are 60 to 100 centimeters in width. The petiole is very long and joins the leaf well within the leaf margin. The leaf blade is broad, rounded-ovate or ovate, 30 to 80 centimeters greater in length than in width, and wider towards the base than near the tip. The stipules are 6 to 10 centimeters long. The flowers are small but are borne in large numbers on compound inflorescesnses. the capsules are borne in dense spherical masses, are smooth, and 8 to 10 millimeters long, comprising 2 dehiscent, leathery cocci, each valve armed with 2 spinelike process at the apex.

According to Guerrero, the resin of this species is used as an astringent for ulcers in the mouth.

 

Biri

SPILANTHES ACMELLA (Linn.) Murr.
Verbesina acmella Linn.
Spilanthes lobata Blanco.

Local names: Biri (Ig.); dila-dilag (If.); gatang-gatang (Sul.); pilet-pilet (Sul.); toothache plant (Engl.).

Biri is found in Benguet Subprovince, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindoro and Balabac, in open waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes. It is pantropic in distribution.

This is an erect, branched, annual herb, which reaches a height of 15 to 60 centimeters. The leaves are opposite, smooth or nearly so, ovate-lanceolate, and 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, with pointed tip and wedge-shaped base, and with toothed or wavy margins. The conical heads occur singly at the ends of long stalks, and are about 1 centimeter in length. The flowers are yellow. The achenes are flattened, oblong, dark brown and enclosed separately in scales.

Wehmer records that in the form fusica Makino, Asahina ans Asano [Journ. Pharm. Soc. Japan No. 460 (1922) 1] isolated from the plant an active principle, spilanthol (C14H25NO).

The herb is official in the French (1) Pharmacopoeia.

Tavera reports that some native herb-doctors use the root as a purgative, giving a decoction of 4 to 8 grams to a cup of water. The infusion is used locally for itches and psoriasis. Internally it has a diuretic effect and is reputed to be a solvent of vesical calculi. The leaf juice and the bruised leaves are applied to wound and atonic ulcers. These leaves, with those of Blumea balsamifea and Tamarndus indica, are used to prepare aromatic baths for convalescents, rheumatics, and pregnant women. Guerrero states that the decocted roots, leaves, and tops are used as a vulnerary.

According to Kirtikar and Basu the flower-heads are by far the most pungent part, and are chewed by the Hindus to relieved toothache, which they do by producing redness of the gums and salvation. A tincture of the flower heads is also recommended for toothache in place of tincture of pyrethrum. It is said to be a specific for inflammation of the periosteum of the jaws.

Caius says that the plant is used as a specific for toothache in Old Calabar. In South Africa the powdered leaf is placed in a carious tooth, and is rubbed on the lips and gums for sore-mouth in children. In Cameroons the flowering heads are combined with other plants, it is chewed, and swallowed for snake bite, together with local treatment of the wound. Among the Mundas of Chota Nagpur the crushed plant is used as a fish poison.

 

Bitangol

CALOPHYLLUM BLANCOI Pl. and Tr.
Calophyllum wallichianum Vidal

Local names: Basangal (Ilk.); bitangol (Tag.,S.L.Bis., P. Bis., Bik.); hitaog (Tag., C. Bis., Mbo.); bitaog-bakil (Pang.,Sbl.); bitaong (P.Bis.); bitaol (Ting.); botol (Ig.); palomaria del monte (Tag.,Sp.,Bik.,P. Bis.); palumut (Tagb.); pameklaten (Ilk.); pamitlatiin (Ilk.); pamitaogen (Ilk.); pamitaoyen (Pang.); pamitaugen (Ilk.); tadak (Neg.).

Bitangol is found only in the Philippines in primary forests at low and medium altitudes.  It is often abundant from Cagayan to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Ambil, Palawan, Masbate, Leyte, Panay, and Mindanao.

This is an erect tree reaching a height of about 25 meters.  The leaves are opposite, somewhat hairy, oblong, about 10 centimeters long, and 3 centimeters wide, with numerous parallel veins which closely set. The panicles are equal to the leaves in length or shorter, are hairy, and stand erect or ascend from the upper leaf axils.  The flowers are creamy white and nearly 2 centimeters across.  The fruit is ellipsoid.

According to Guerrero, the sap of the bark of this plant, especially when mixed sulfur, is used locally as a cure for boil and wounds a cloth kept moist with the sap is applied on the breast of a patient suffering from asthma.

 

Bitaog

CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn.

Local names: Bangkalan (Tag.); batarau (Neg.); bitaog (Ilk., Sbl., Pamp.,Tag.); bitok (Tag.); butalau (Tag., S.L.Bis.,C.Bis., Mbo.); bitaoi (Pang.); bitong (Tag.); dagkalan (Tag.); dagkalan (Tag.); dangkaan(Bag.); dangkalan (Tag.,Bik.,P.Bis., Mag.); dingkalan (Bik., Tag.); langkagan (Mag.); pulo maria (Neg., Tag., C.Bis.,Sul.); palo maria de playa (Tag.,Sp.,Sul.); pamitaogen (Ilk.); tambotambok (Sul.); rutalau (Iv.); Alexandrian laurel, sweet-scented calophyllum (Engl.).

Bitaog is found throughout the Philippines along the seashores, where it forms a characteristic strand.  It is also found in India to tropical East Africa and through Malaya to Polynesia.

This useful plant is a medium-sized or large tree, reaching a height of 20 meters.  The leaves are leatherly, shining, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 9 to 18 centimeters long, and narrowed to a pointed base and somewhat rounded tip.  The fragrant flowers are white, 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, and borne on axillary racemes 5 to 10 centimeters long.  The fruit is yellow, smooth, pulpy, rounded, and 3 to 4 centimeters in diameter.

Bitaog is cultivated in Manila as a shade tree on lawns and beside avenues and boulevards, particularly along the beach.  The fragrant flowers are used in making bouquets, wreaths, etc.  They are also put in the hair of Filipino women.  The oil is also “buri sugar”, which is sold as a confection.  The oil is also used as an illuminant, and for making soap, and may be used as varnish.  The bark may be suitable for direct use in the tannery.

Richmond and Del Rosario report that the kernels contain a poisonous resin to which its color and odor are due.  Brown tabulated the constants of the oil reported by Fenler, Bolton and Jesson, and Euchida:

Constants of Calophyllum inophyllum

 

 

Constant

Reported by --

 

Fenler

Bolton and Jesson

Euchida

Specific gravity at 150C

0.942

--------

0.9452

Reichert-Meissl Number

0.13

--------

0.38

Acid value

28.45

26.2

45.95

Saponification value

196.000

190.5

194.1

Unsaponification matter

--------

1.2

--------

Iodine value

92.8

88.5

95.49

Solidifying point, 0C

--------

+170

--------

Refractive index (96.80C)

--------

--------

1.47925

Butyro-refractometer reading

--------

72.30

81.6

Hehner value

--------

--------

93.61

Ester value

--------

--------

148.1

Baens, Yenko, West and Curran report that the bark yields 19.12 percent of tannin; while Gana reports that the bark contains 11.9 percent of tannin.  Kirtikar and Basu and Brown state that oleoresin is present in the bark and exudes when the latter is incised.  De Grosourdy reports that the resin contains benzoic acids, which are good pectoral, like that balsam of Tolu.

Oleoresin is official in the Mexican (1, 2) and Spanish (6) Pharmacopoeias.

Kamel first reported the use of the balsam (oleoresin) from the bark as a cicatrizant, and the use of an infusion or decoction of the leaves as an eye remedy.  Tavera mentions a gum resin from the bark as a useful application to wounds and old sores, and the oil as an external application for indigestion and colic.  Blanco considers oleoresin, taken internally, as effective for lung ailments.  Of this species, Guerrero says that the oil obtained from the seeds and the oleoresin from the bark form a very energetic cicatrizant; the latter is used as a balsamic in affections of the lungs.  The leaves are used to cure disorders of the eye.  The oleoresin is employed on wounds.  Water in which the leaves have been pressed is said to be an efficient astringent against haemorrhoids.

Drury, quoting Horsfield, says that in Java the tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties.

Bocquillon-Limousin reports that in Indo-China the pounded bark is applied in orchitis.  Perrot and Hurrier say that in Indo-China the bark is used against dysentery and intestinal colds.  Nadkarni asserts that the astringent juice from the bark is purgative, and that it is given in decoction for internal haemorrhages.  Drury records that in India the gum which flows from the wounded branches is mixed with strips of the bark and leaves, and is steeped in water; the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to sore eyes.

According to Burkill, in Netherlands Indies a compound decoction of the bark with other barks is given internally after childbirth, and for vaginal discharges, passing of blood, and gonorrhoea.  The leaves, if left in water all night, impart a pleasant scent to it and a bluish color.  This is used in Linga and Fiji as a lotion for sore eyes.  An infusion of the leaf is prescribed internally for heatstroke, in which treatment a lotion made from the root is applied in addition.  But for a stitch in the side the reverse is the case, the external application, here a hot poultice, being made from the leaves heated for the purpose, and the draught being an infusion of the root.

Kirtikar and Basu, Nadkarni, and Drury say that the oleoresin from the bark is a useful remedy for indolent ulcers.  Corre and Lejanne report that in indo-China it is considered emetic and purgative.     

Kirtikar and Basu, Drury, and O’Shaughnessy state that in India the oil is used as an external application in rheumatism and gout.  The oil has a very beneficial influence over the mucous membrane of the genito-urinary organs, and is therefore highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhoea and gleet.  Dymock, Warden, and Hooper say that the Viscum versticillatum Roxb.oil is a specific for scabies.  Ridley quotes Holmes, who says that the oil from the kernel is used for ringworm.  Corre and Lejanne question the use of the oil as a cicatrizant.  Nadkarni says that it is rubefacient and irritant.  De Grosourdy adds that the resin is sudorific and is useful for chronic catarrh.  An infusion of the fruit is pectoral and stimulates the mucous membrane of the lungs.

Powell reports from Samoe that every part of the plant is a virulent poison.  The milky juice causes blindness when brought in contact with the eyes.  The sap, when brought into the circulation, causes death and is therefore used by the Samoans as an arrow poison.

 

Bogto

VISCUM ORIENTALE Willd. 
Fusanus ? parasitus Blanco
Viscum heyneanum DC.
Viscum obtusatum DC.
Viscum ovalifolium DC.
Viscum pamattonis Korth.
Viscum roxburghiana Korth.
Viscum navivellatum Korth.
Viscum philippense Llanos
Viscum monoicum Presl
Viscum opuntioides Cav.

Local name: Bogto (Tagb.).

Bogto is found in Benguet to Quezon Provinces in Luzon; in Lubang; and in Palawan; on various species of tree at low and medium altitudes. It also occurs in India to southern China and southward to Australia.

The plant is a rather slender, strongly branched, parasitic shrub. The leaves opposite, with the petiole not distinguishable from the blade, lanceolate to roundish obovate, up to 8.5 centimeters long, 3.5 centimeters wide, and obscurely 3- to 5-nerved, the base being obtuse or rounded, or somewhat wedge-shaped. The flowers are few or many, in stalkless or short cymes, of which the middle flower is female and 1.5 to 2 millimeters long, and the lateral ones, male. The fruit is roundish-ellipsoidal, up to 5 millimeters long, 4 millimeters in diameter, smooth, and yellowish or brownish.-green.

Chopra reports that the plant is poisonous and is used in India as a substitute for nux vomica.

Ridley states that it is used for pustular itches. The leaves are burned to ashes, which are mixed with sulfur and coconut oil, and rubbed on the body.

 

Bolon

ALPHONSEA ARBOREA (Blanco) Merr
Macanea arborea Blanco
Monodora myristica  Blanco
Monocarpia blanco F-Vill.
Alphonsea philippinensis Merr.

Local names: Bolo (Blk.); Kalai (Tag.); Lanotan (S.L.Bis.); lanutan (Tag., Bik.); malatambon (Bik.); palokalai (Tag.); sapiro (C. Bis.).

Bolon is an endemic species found in forests at low and medium altitudes in Laguna, Rizal, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro; Masbate; Ticao; Leyte; Cebu; and Mindanao.

It is a tall forest tree, reaching a height of about 40 meters and a diameter of about 70 centimeters. The leaves are ovate-oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters in length, and 2 to 3 centimeters in width, with pointed base and tip. The inflorescence is lateral, usually upon short, hairy stalks. The flowers are small, yellow, and odorless. The sepals are short, and the petals are about 6 millimeters long. The fruit is usually single, large, hard, woody, scrufy brown, ellipsoid or subglobose, short, and 6 to 9 centimeters long.

According to Guerrero and Father Blanco the fruit of this tree is boiled and used locally as a cure for fever, and a decoction of it is a good remedy in ammenorrhoea. Sulit states that a decoction of the bark with dried leaves of garlic is good for urticaria.

 

Bolongeta

DIOSPYROS PILOSANTHEERA Blanco 
Diospyros carthei Hiern

Localnames: Alintatau (Tag.); amaga (Bik.); apopuyot (Ibn.); ata-ata (Bik.); atilma (Tag.); baganito (Bik., S.L. Bis.); balatinau (Tag.); balingagta (Ibn.,Ilk.,Ig.); balitinau (Ilk.); bantolinau (Bis.,Tag.); batolinau(Ibn.); bolongeta (Ibn.,Tag., Sbl.); dalondong (Bik.); dambuhala (Tag.); ditman (Klg.); galorigar (Pang.); katilma (Tag.); mabolo-ti-nakir (Ilk.); malapuyan (Tag.); malatalang (Pang.); marabikar (Bik.); talang0gubat (Tag.);tauaylan (P. Bis.).

Bolongeta is an endemic species, which is common in primary forests at low altitudes from northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces.

This plant is a medium-sized tree. The leaves are numerous, alternate, leathery, smooth when old, oblong or oblong-ovate, sometimes subelliptic, about 12 centimeters long, and 5.5 centimeters wide, with pointed tip and usually rounded base. The flowers are white, solitary, or fascicled. The fruit is subelliptic-sold, about 2 centimeters across, and subtended by an enlarged calyx.

The Moros in Jolo use a decoction of the bark for coughs.

 

Borabor

CINOTIUM BAROMETZ (Linn.) J. Sm.

Localnames: Borabor (Ilk.);borabortapaku (Ilk.);sabongtiborabor (Ilk.); salagisog (Bik.); tinampa(Ig.) ;chain fern (Engl.).

Borabor is a large fern distributed in the mountains from Luzon to Mindanao. It also extends from Assam across Malaya.

The stipes are a meter or more tall, and are covered with dense yellow hairs at the base. The fronds are a meter or two long ovate, hardly tripinnate, and glaucose beneath. The lower pinnae are ovate-lanceolate, 30 to 60 centimeters long. The pinnules are linear-lanceolate. There are 2 to 12 sori, rarely 1 on each side of the segment. The indusium is brownish.

The hairs are official in the Austrian (7-8); and Russian (1-4) Pharmacopoeias.

The long hairs from the rhizomes are used as a styptic for coagulating the blood to arrest capillary haemorrhages. Ridley reports a similar use in Malaya.

In Chinese medicine the drug is considered strengthening to the spine, antirheumatic and stimulating to the liver, kidneys, and male generative organs, and is recommended as on old man’s remedy. General tonic properties are also ascribed to it. In Europe the hairy filaments from the stipes are recommended as a haemostatic in wounds. In the Philippines the rhizomes are used as topicals for wounds and ulcers.

 

Botete

CLEOME SPINOSA Jacq. 

Local name: Botete (Ig.)

Botete was recently introduced into the Philippines and is now thoroughly naturalized and abundant along streams in Baguio. It is a native of tropical America, but is now pantropic in distribution.

This is an annual, hairy herb. The stem is erect, 30 to 90 centimeters in height, simple, or branched. The leaves are alternate, with the blades palmately 5- to 7- foliate, on petioles longer than the leaflets, and commonly with stipular spines. The leaflets are entire, elliptic to obovate or rarely oblanceolate, 2 to 10 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. The racemes are 10 to 30 centimeters long. The sepals are linear-lanceolate, and 5 to 10 millimeters long. The petals are clawed, purple, or (rarely) white, oval or rounded, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters long. The capsule is linear, and 6 to 10 centimeters long. The seeds are pale and finely reticulated.

The plant was originally introduced in Baguio as an ornamental; but now has become wild. It is effective for bedding in gardens.

According to Ridley the bruised leaves are applied to the head in cases of headaches. Hoehne states that the plant is acid and is used as a stomachic and an antivulnerary in Brazil.

 

Botgo

FICUS STIPULOSA Miq.  
Urostigma stipulosa Miq.
Urostigma caulocarpum Miq.
Ficus caulocarpa F. Vill.
Ficus infectoria RoxbVar. caulocarpa king
Ficus infectoria Merr.
Ficus caulobotrya Vidal

Local names: Balete (Ibn.,Sbl.,P.Bis.,Tag.); botgo (Bik.); bubulung (Sbl.); kuba (Ting.); magamano (Bag.); nonok (P. Bis.); pasapla (Ilk.); puspus (Ting.); sanglau (Ilk.).

Botgo is an endemic species common in thickets and forest at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.

It is a deciduous tree, starting as an epiphyte, which later grows to 10 meters in height. The leaves are smooth, entire and shining, oblong, 12 to 20 centimeters long, with tapering pointed tip and usually rounded base, with the petioles 5 to 7 centimeters long. The stipules are membranous, pink, oblong, about 8 centimeters long. The receptacles are solitary, in pairs, or in fascicles in the axils of the leaves and in the axils of the fallen leaves on the ultimate branchlets, short-pedicelled, nearly spherical, about 5 millimeters in diameter, often in great abundance, 3-bracteate at the base.

The fresh roots are used as poultice on wounds.

 

Boto

SCAEVOL FRUTESCENS (Mill.) Krause  
Lobelia frutescens Mill.
Lobelia taccada Gaertn.
Scavola koenigii Vahl.
Scaevola lobelia Blanco

Local names: Balak-balak (Tag.); balok-balok (Tag.); bokabok (Tag., Bis.); bosboron (Tag., Bis.); boto (Tag., Bis.); chalmalukung (Ilk.); dudukdukin (Ilk.); hulbo (Bik.); linu (Tag.); linog (Sbl.); marokborok(Tag.); mosboron (Tag., Bis.); panaboong (Tag., Bis.); pangangtolon (Tag., Bis.); tagustus (Bis.).

Boto is found along the seashore throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Madagascar and through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

This is a large, spreading shrub with loose bark and a stout stem and branches. The leaves are crowded in the axil, alternate, obovate or obovate-oblong, 12 to 25 centimeters in length, 6 to 10 centimeters or more wide, and silky, with an obtuse tip which tapers to a wedge-shaped base. The flowers are white, tingled with purple, about 2.5 centimeters long, and borne in considerable numbers in axillary cymes. The calyx-lobes are linear-lanceolate, 3 to 6 millimeters long, and obtuse and enlarge in fruit. The corolla-tube is 1.5 to 1.8 centimeters long, obliquely split to the base behind, narrow, and hairy; the lobes are lanceolate, and 6 to 8 millimeters long. The fruit (drupe) is ovoid or somewhat rounded, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, longitudinally ridged, and very succulent.

Wehmer quotes Hartman [Gen. Tijdschr. Nederl, Indie (1894) 34], who isolated from the bark and leaves a bitter principle and a glucoside.

In the Philippines the juice of the ripe fruit is used to clean opacity of the eyes. Guerrero states that the roots yield a decoction used in beriberi and in certain syphilitic affections; also in dysentery. The leaves are smoked like tobacco.

In Amboina, according to Kirtikar and Basu, the juice of the fruit is installed by the natives into the eyes to clear off opacities and take away dimness of vision. Dalgado says that in the form of cataplasm the fruit is effective for tumors, and internally, induces menstruation.

 

Botobotonisan

SPHAERANTHUS AFRICANUS Linn.  
Sphaeranthus alastus Blanco.
Sphaeranthus indicus Blanco.
Sphaeranthus microephalus Willd.

Local names: Botobotonis (Ilk.); botobotonisan (Tag.); sambong-gala (Tag.); talababako (Bis.); tarutakako (Bis.).

Botobotonisan is weed in open, rather damp waste places in and about towns at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in tropical Africa and Asia through Malaya to Australia.

The plant is more or less hairy or nearly smooth, rather coarse, erect or spreading, branched are prominently winged with three thin, wide, longitudinal structures, which are the extension of the leaf blades. The leaves are obovate to oblong-obovate, 4 to 13 centimeters long, without stalks, and finely toothed at the margins. The heads are very numerous, borne in dense, rounded clusters about 1 centimeters in diameter, and occur singly at the ends of erect, winged stalks. The flowers are greenish-white.

According to Tavera the plant seems to possess anthelmintic properties, and for this purpose is administered as a powder, 2 to 4 grams, with a little molasses or syrup. It is bitter and aromatic and is given in diseases of the stomach and intestines for its tonic and stimulant effect. The odor of the drug is transmitted to both the urine and the sweat. Guerrero reports that a decoction of the leaves and tops is taken a stomach tonic and is also employed as an antiblennorrhagic.

Nadkarni reports that in Bengal the plant is used as a tonic, vermifuge and diuretic. Crevost and Petelot say that in Indo-China the plant is used as an emollient and resolvent; it is applied as a poultice to any ailing part of the body. The juice of the leaves is used as a gargle in inflammation of the throat. They add that it has the odor of terebenthine and that the flowers contain a volatile oil, which they believe to be the active principle

 

Botolan

SECURINAGA VIROSA (Roxb.). Pax. & Hoffm.
Fluggea virosa  (Roxb.) Pail.
Phyllantus virosus Roxb.
Xylophylla obovata Willd.
Fluggea obovata Wall.
Fluggea microcarpa Blume
Cicca pentandra Blanco
Securinega microcarpa Muell.-Arg.
Securinega obovata Muell.-Arg.
Fluggea leucopyrus F.-Vill.
Securinega ovata Vidal.

Local names: Arusit (Ilk.); barasiksik (Ilk.); barsit (Ig.); barsik (Ilk.); barusik (Ilk.); bayasit (Tag.); boiset (Tag.); botolan (Tag.); bugbugutut (Ig.); kabukabukas (Mag.); magaspang (P.Bis.); maluuit (Ibn.); tulitangalong (P. Bis.).

Botolan is found common throughout the Philippines in dry thickets at low and medium altitudes. It also occurs in tropical Africa through India to China and Malaya and to tropical Australia.

This is a small, deciduous, smooth, large, graceful shrub. The leaves are extremely variable in shape, elliptic-ovate, obovate or orbicular, 2.5 to 10 centimeters in length, rather glaucous beneath, and rounded, obtuse, or pointed at the top. The flowers are usually borne on axillary fascicles. The fruit is mostly small, black or white, dry, and about 3 to 5 millimeters in diameter.

Burkill reports that the bark is used for tanning and as a black dye for matting. Heyne quotes Hasskarl, who states that the fruit is edible. Dalziel affirms that the white fruit is eaten also in East Africa.

According to Kirtikar and Basu, the bark contains 10 percent of tannic acid, and an alkaloid.

In the Philippines (Rizal Province) the charcoal of the wood is powdered and used as a cicatrizant of wounds, and a decoction of the leaves is used for cleansing wounds.

According to Kirtikar and Basu and Caius, the juice of the leaves, or the leaves made into paste with tobacco, are used to destroy worms in sores. Dalziel states that the leaves have laxative properties and are taken in decoction. The root, sometimes with the leaves, is taken for venereal diseases. Dalziel further says that the bark is sometimes astringent and appears to be poisonous. Caius also states that in Rhodesia the root is used as an aphrodisiac. The West Ashantis use the roots to cure gonorrhea. The Ewe people of Togoland use a decoction of the leaves internally to cure constipation.

 

Boton

ADENOSTEMMA LAVENIA (Linn.) O. Kuntze 
Adenostemma viscosum Frost.
Verbesina lavenia Linn.

Local names: Añgañgit (Ig.); boton (Tag.); bulak-manok (Tag., Pamp.); darakat (Sub.); dolomnena-babaii (If.); panikit (Bon.); salindukot (Buk.); ubat-lastung (Sul.).

Boton is a pantropic species found in open, wet places along streams, in forest and in thickets, from sea level to an altitude of 1,800 meters, in the Babuyan Islands; in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Viscaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Bataan, Quezon, and Laguna provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Culion, Catanduanes, Panay, Camigiun de Misamis and Mindanao.

This is an erect, smooth or hairy, annual, slender or rather stout herb 0.3 to 1 meter in height. The leaves are thin, opposite (upper ones alternate), oblong to broadly ovate, and 5 to 15 centimeters long, with the apex pointed and the margins entire or scalloped. The inflorescence is lax, and the heads are 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter. The flowers are very small and white, with the corolla hairy near the mouth. The (achene) is covered with wrinkles or is rough, and is crowned by a glandular ring bearing 3 to 5 club-shaped, short lobes.

According to Caius the plant is used medicinally in La Reunion; the leaves are antispasmodic, and the fresh juice is a good stimulant and sternutatory. Burkill says that the plant is popular among the Malays for poultices for the head, and in ulcerations of the nose, and in diarrhea. In Malacca a decoction of the roots is given as a cure for stomachache. In the Dutch Indies a lotion of the leaves is used to arrest baldness; a paste of them is used to poultice sun-burned skin; or, scorched, they are applied to boils and ulcers to ripen them. The juice of the plant is taken for dysentery, or, along with that of Centella Asiatica and Phyllanthus niruri, for colic. The root is chewed or the plant eaten to stop diarrhea.

 

Botonesan

HYPTIS CAPITATA Jacq.
Pycnanthemum decrrens Blanco
Thymus virginicus Blanco

Local names:  Bababanga (Bon.); botonesan (Tag.); kambali (Tag.); kombar-kombaran (Tag.); leng-lenga (Bon.); linga-lingahan (Tag.); palapasagi (P. Bis.); paloplaot (Ilk.); pansi-pansi (Bik.); tabaku-tabaku(Sul.); tarotabako (Bik.); tetetei (Bon.); tultulisan (Ilk.); turukan (Tag.).

Botonesan is found from northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao, in all or most islands and provinces as a weed in the settled areas. Occurring in open, waste places, fallow rice paddies, etc.  It was introduced from Mexico and is now established also in the Marianne and Caroline Islands in Formosa, in Java, and in Amboina.

This is a stout, erect, nonaromatic, more or less hairy, annual herb 0.5 to 1.5 meters high, with green or purplish, 4-angled stems.  The leaves are lanceolate and 8 to 14 centimeters long, with toothed margins. The numerous flowers are crowded in long-peduncles growing up to 10 centimeters in length and the heads being 1 to 2 centimeters in diameter with a basal involucre of hairy bracts.  The calyx is green, 4 millimeters long, and accrescent, measuring 8 millimeters long in fruit.  The corolla is white and 6 millimeters long.

In the Philippines a decoction of the leaves is used to cleanse wounds, and one of the roots for amenorrhoea.

According to de Wildeman this plant is employed in Martinique as a tonic and excitant.  De Grosourdy says that the plant is used in the Antilles as a stimulant.

 

Botong

BARRINGTONIA ASIATICA (Linn.) Kurz
Mammea asiatica Linn.
Barringtonia speciosa Forst.
Agasta asiatica Miers
Butonica rumphina Miers

Localnames: Balubiton (P.Bis.); biton (Bik.); biton (C.Bis.); bituing (Bis.); boton (Tag.); botong (Tag., Bik.); botong-botong (Bik.); biton (Bik., Chab.); lugo (Ibn.); motong-botong (Bik.); vuton (Iv.).

Botong is a characteristics strand plant found along the seashore throughout the Philippines. It is also met within tropical Asia to Polynesia.

This is a tree 8 to 15 meters height. The leaves are large, obovate or oblong-obovate, 0 to 40 centimeters long, entire, thick, shinning, stalkless, blunt-tipped, and pointed at the base. The flowers are very large and white, and are borne in short, erect, few-flowered racemes. The calyx-tube is about 1 centimeter long; the lobes number 2 to 3 and are oblong-ovate, concave, green, and about 2.5 centimeters long. The petals are deciduous, four, thin, first white and then brownish, oblong, 7 to 8n centimeters long, and 3 to 4 centimeters wide. The stamens are very numerous, slender, united at the base 10 to 12 centimeters long, white below, and shading to purple above. The anthers are small and yellow. The fruit obovoid, 8 to 14 centimeters long and 8 to 12 centimeters thick, and contains a single large seed.

In the Philippines the tree is often cultivated for shade along boulevards and avenues by the sea. The fruit is used as a fish poison. Crevost and Petelot state that the fruit is also used as fish poison in Indo-China. Watt states that in the Moluccas oil is extracted from the seeds and is used s an illuminant. Burkill says that the pods are eaten in Indo-China.

Wehmer records that the seeds contain about 2.9 per cent of fixed oil, consisting of olein, palmitin, and stearin; galic acid, 0.54 per cent; and a glucoside, barringtonin 3.271 per cent (C18H25O7OH3).

In the Philippines the leaves are heated and applied as topicals for stomachache. According to Guerrero, the fresh leaves are used in topicals for rheumatism. The seeds are employed as a vermifuge.

 

Brunfelsia

BRUNFELSIA AMERICANA Linn.

Common name: Brunfelsia (Engl.).

Brunfelsia is cultivated in Manila and other large towns in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. It was introduced from tropical America.

This ornamental plant is an erect, smooth shrub 1.5 to 2 meters in height. The leaves are somewhat crowded on the ultimate twigs, often yellowish green, oblong-ovate, 5 to 10 centimeters long, entire, and pointed at both ends. The flowers are terminal or axillary, solitary or in pairs, shortly stalked, and fragrant. The calyx is green, ovoid, 6 millimeters long, and 5-toothed. The corolla-tube is about 4.5 centimeters long, slender, and somewhat straw-colored; the limb is white, soon turning yellowish, oblique, subequally 5-lobed, and about 5 centimeters in diameter. The fruit is rounded and about 1.5 centimeters in diameter, with a yellow, somewhat fleshy pericarp and numerous seeds.

According to Corre and Lejanne, in Martinique the astringent fruit is used as a tonic and as a syrup in chronic diarrhea.

 

Buboi

CEIBA PENTANDRA (Linn.) Gaertn.
Bombax pentandrum Linn.
Eriodendron anfractuosum DC.

Local Names: Balios (Tag.); basanglai (Ilk.); boboi (Bik.,Tag.); boi-boi (Ak.,Bis.); buboi (Tag.); bulak (Tag.,Pamp.); bulak-dondol (C.Bis.); bulak-kastila (Pamp.); bulak-kahoi (Tag.); bulak-sina (Tag.); daldol(Bis.); doldol (Bis.); dogdol (C.Bis.); dondol (Ilk.,C.Bis.); gataova (If.); gapas (C.Bis.); kayo (Bik., Bis.); kasanglai (Pamp.); kapak (Sbl.) kapas (Sbl.); kapas-sanglai (Ilk.); kapoc (Bis., Sul.); kapas (Pang.); kapuk(Sul.); kulak (Ilk.); sanglai (Ting.,Bon.); kapocwhite silk cotton tree (Engl.).

Buboi or kapok is planted in settled areas throughout the Philippines. It is possibly a native of tropical America, and is now pantropic in distribution.

This is an erect, deciduous tree 15 meters or less in height. The trunk cylindric, usually bearing scattered, large spines. The branches are in distant whorls, and spread horizontally. The leaves are compound, with 5 to 8 leaflets, which are lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, and pointed at the ends. The flowers are numerous, whitish, and about 3 centimeters long. The capsules are pendulous, oblong, about 15 centimeters in length, and 5 centimeters thick. They contain numerous black seeds, which are compressed-globose, smooth, and embedded in fine, silky hairs.

The fibers from the pods of this tree are very extensively used for stuffing pillows, cushions, and mattresses and are excellent for those purposes. They are also employed in making life-preserves. Kapok oil, which is extracted from the seeds, is used for the manufacture of the soap and as a substitute for cotton-seed oil. The fresh cake is valuable as stack feed. The trees are used as telephone poles and for fences. The young leaves are eaten as a leafy vegetable. Marańon states that the young leaves are very good sources of calcium and iron. Burkill reports that the seeds are eaten in Malaya and in Java and Celebes. The sprouts and young pods are also edible. The ashes of the fruit are used by dyers in Malaya.

Lewkowitsch reports that the seeds have the following average composition:

Oil

24.20

Water

11.85

Ash

5.22

Crude fiber

23.91

Albuminoids

18.92

Carbohydrates, etc.

15.90

Kapok oil has the following constant (Lewkowitch):

Specific gravity at 15˚ C

0.9235

Solidifying point

29.6°

Saponification value (Mgrms KOH)

181-205

Iodine value

117.9

Maumemé test

95

Refractive index

51.3

he oil consists of a mixture of fatty acids about 70 percent of which is liquid, while 30 percent is palmitic acid, which is a solid. The composition of kapok-oil was investigated by Cruz and West, who found that Philippine kapok oil has a composition very similar to that of American cotton-seed oil:

Constituents

Philippine Kapok-seed Oil

American Cotton-seed Oil

Glyceride of:

Percent

Percent

Unsaturated acids

 

 

Oleic

49.8

35.2

Linolic

29.3

41.7

Saturated acid

 

 

Myristic

0.5

0.3

Palmitic

15.9

20.0

Stearic

2.3

2.0

Arachidic

0.8

0.6

Unsaponifiable matter

0.8

 

TOTAL

94.4

99.8

 

 

 

Composition detyermined by J.S. Jamieson and W. F Baughman, Journ. Am. Chem. Soc. 42 (1920) 1197.

According to father Blanco, the bark is employed as a vomitive. Guerrero reports that the tender fruit is used as an emollient. The bark is prepared to that of the malabulak (Gossampinus heptaphylla) as an aphrodisiac. Brewed into a decoction it is regarded as a specific in febrile catarrh.

According to Watt, the root is medicinal in India, a decoction being given for chronic dysentery, diarrhea, ascites, and anasarca. Nadkarni says that the young roots, dried in the shade and powdered, form a chief ingredient in aphrodisiac medicines. The tap-root of the young plant is useful in gonorrhea and dysentery.

Burkill, quotes Ward, who says that the gum, which is astringent, may be given sometimes in bowel-complaints. Nadkarni states that the gum is useful as a styptic, being given with benefit in diarrhea, dysentery, and menorhagia. It is given with milk as a cooling laxative to children. Kirtikar and Basu, say that the gum is also used for incontinence of urine of children.

Burkill says that the bark is diuretic and, in sufficient quantity, produces vomiting.  Menaut tells us that it is used in Cambodia for fevers and diarrhea. Burkill and Haniff record its use among the Malays for asthma and colds in children. Heyne states that in Java the bark with areca nuts, nutmegs, and sugar-candy, is taken as a diuretic, and thought good for stone in the bladder. Martinez records that in Mexico a decoction of the bark taken internally has emetic, diuretic, and antispasmodic properties. Standley records that the bark is applied to wounds. Dalziel informs that in the Camerons, the bark, which has tannin, is pounded and macerated in cold water and applied to swollen fingers. In Liberia an infusion is used as a mouth-wash.

According to Burkill, the leaves are medicinal among the Malays, being used in the same way as those of the cotton-plant. In Singapore an infusion, which is prepared by pounding the leaves with an onion and a little turmeric, and adding water, is given for coughs. Heyne says that in Java infusion of the leaves are used for coughs, hoarseness, intestinal catarrh, and urethritis. Watt declares that in India the tender leaves are administered for gonorrhea. Menaut, writing of their use in Cambodia, says that a dose brings on perspiration and then vomiting, and is a cure for inebriation. Burkill adds that in Java the leaves are used for cleaning the hair.

Dalziel, quoting Pokeguin, says that a decoction of the flowers is used in French Guiana for constipation.

Kirtikar and Basu, reports that the unripe fruit is regarded as demulcent and astringent.

 

Buboi-gubat

GOSSAMPINUS HEPTAPHYLLA (Houtt.) Bakh
Bombax cieba Linn.
Bombax malabaricum DC.
Melaleuca leucadendron Blanco.
Bombax heptaphyllum Can.

Local Names: Bobor (Ilk.); buboi-gubat (Tag.); malabulak (Tag.); taglinau (Tag.); taroktok (Ilk.); red silk cotton tree (Engl.).

Buboi-gubat is found in Abra, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon, in Mindanao; in Camiguin de Misamis; and in Mindanao, scattered in secondary and primary forest at low and medium altitudes. The plant is also reported from India to Southern China, and Southward to Sumatra and Java.

This is a large tree 25 meters or more in height. The trunk is covered with few or many, very large, conical pickles with corky bases. The leaves are deciduous and smooth. The leaflets are 5 to 7, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, and 10 to 20 centimeters in length. The flowers are large, red, 8 to 10 centimeters long, appearing before the leaves, and fascicled at, or borne near, the ends of the branches. The petals are more or less hairy on both surfaces. The capsules are hard, woody, oblong, and about 15 centimeters long. The valves are silky within. The seeds are numerous, smooth, obovate, and embedded in silky hairs.

The seeds are surrounded by silky hairs which are similar to those of Cieba pentandra but whiter. The fiber is often confused with “buboi.” It is used for stuffing pillow.

According to Brown, the bast of this tree is colored orange buff and is used for making ropes. It has fair degree of tenacity, but is too scarce to be commonly used for rope-making. Ropes made from it are said to be suitable for use in the dry season.

Wehmer records that the gum from the bark yields katechuic acid, sugar, “semulrot,” ash with CaCO3, MgCO3, etc. Nadkarni says that the gum contains tannic and gallic acids. The Bulletin of the Imperial Institute (London) reports that the seeds contain 24.5 per cent oil, with the following constants:

Specific gravity at 15˚/15˚ C

 

0.9208

Acid value

 

9.3

Saponification value

 

193.3

Iodine value

percent

78.0

Volatile acids, soluble

 

nil

Unsaponifiable matter

percent

1.0

Refractive index at 40˚ C. nD

 

1.461

Solidifying point of fatty acids

 

38.0˚ C

According to Guerrero, the roots are considered astringent, restorative, alterative, and aphrodisiac. They are used as a restorative in phthisis. The gum is very astringent.

According to Nadkarni, the roots are stimulant and tonic properties. The tap-root, especially of the young plant, is demulcent, tonic, slightly diuretic, and aphrodisiac; it is used for gonorrhea and dysentery, and as emetic. Kraemer states that the roots are applied externally for swellings and rheumatic pains. De Lanessan says that in Guiana the root are used as a vomitive.

Nadkarni adds that the bark is demulcent, diuretic, tonic, and slightly astringent, and is used externally in the form of a paste for inflammations and skin eruptions.

Nadkarni, Dymock, Warden, and Hooper and Dey report that the gum is astringent and styptic, and is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, menorhagia, and other affection in which astringents like Kino and catechuic are useful.

Nadkarni continues that the leaves, ground and mixed with milk, are given for strangury. The leaves, ground into a paste, are applied to skin eruptions. The flowers are laxative and diuretic. The petals, squeezed and soaked in human or cow’s milk, form a soothing application for conjunctivitis of infants.

Nadkarni adds that the dry, young fruit is beneficial in calculous affections and inchronic inflammation and ulceration of the bladder and kidneys, including strangury and all other forms of dysuria except those due to mechanical causes. The fruit is also useful I weakness of the genital organs and in most of the disorders for which gentian and calumba are resorted to. The seeds have a good effect in gonorrhea, gleet, chronic cystitis, consumption, and catarrhal affections, especially when combined with half the quantity of cumin and anis-seeds and an eight part of siliceous secretion of bamboo. The “cotton” is employed externally for its mechanical properties (softness of elasticity) in padding splints and covering burnt and inflamed surfaces.

 

Buding

POLYGONUM HYDROPIPER Linn
Polygonum gracile R. Br.
Polygonum oryzetum Blume
Polygonum oryzetum Meisn.
Polygonum flaccidum Meisn.
Polygonum hydropiper Meisn.
Polygonum gracile Meisn.

Local names: Agagat (Bon.); buding (Ig.); tuba (Bon.)

Buding is found in the Philippines only in Benguet Province, Luzon, in open wet places, along, along streams, in old rice paddies, etc., at an altitude of 1,200 to 2,000 meters. It also occurs in warmer parts of the world.

This plant is a smooth, rather robust annual, with tufted or shortly creeping roots. The stems are erect, while the branches are ascending, rather stout, and leafy, 30 to 45 centimeters in height, and often glandular. The nodes are often swollen. The leaves are lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, up to 7.5 centimeters in length. The racemes are flexuous, leafy at the base, thread-like, decurved, and interrupted. The flowers are pinkish. The nuts are usually three-sided.

Read reports that the seeds contain polygenic acid and tannin. The leaves contain an essential oil, malic acid, and phytosterine. Chopra declares that the rootstock yields an essential oil, oxymethyl-anthraquinone.

Bruntz and Jaloux state that the herb is official in the French (1), Mexican (1-4), and Swedish (1-4) Pharmacopoeias.

According to Soubeiran and Thiersant in China the juice is used in itches, and also as a diuretic, carminative and anthelmintic. Kirtikar and Basu adds that the root is stimulating, bitter, and tonic. The bruised leaves are used as a poultice, and a cure for toothache.

Eberhardt also mentions that the plant is a stimulant, diuretic, and detersive.

Muszynski reports that this plant is popular among the Russian peasants as a haemostatic. He cites the chemical investigations of its properties, undertaken by Favitsky and Lebiedieff, in all cases of internal haemorrhage (pulmonary, gastric, haemorrhoidal and uterine) and as a sedative. Both used a fluid extract. Ridley states that the plant is utilized in the United States as an emmenagogue.

 

Bukuan

STRYCHNOS MULTIFLORA Benth.
Strychnos potatorum Linn. var. multiflora Vidal
Strychnos ignatii Vidal

Local names: Abukobuko (Ibn.); batul (Tag.); bugahin (Bis.); bukuan (Ibn.,Neg.); fantandok (Ibn.); pamulaklakin (Tag.); tibanglan (Tag.).

Bukuan is found only in the Philippines, in primary forest at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte, la Union, Bulacan, Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, Quezon, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro.

This is a woody climber. The leaves are opposite, elliptic or ovate, 10 to 18 centimeters long, 6 to 7.5 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip, and rounded at the base. The flowers are white, small, and borne on compound inflorescences in the axils of the upper leaves. The fruit is rounded, bright orange red, and 3 to 4 centimeters in diameter, and contains one flat seed.

In the Philippines, a decoction of the bark, taken internally, is prescribed as an emmenagogue. Guerrero adds that the plant is said to be useful for throat troubles.

 

Bulakan

MERREMIA PELTATA (Linn.) .. Merr.  
Chironia capsularis Blanco
Chironia lanosanthera Blanco
Convolvulus peltatus Linn
Ipomoea nymphaeiflolia Blume
Merremia nymphaeifolia Hallier f.

Localnames: Budakin (Bag.); bulakan (Tag.,Bis.); bulak-bulakan (Bik.); burakan (S.L.Bis., Sul.); tampinita (Sub.).

Bulakan is often common in secondary forest at low an medium altitudes in the Babuyan Islands (Camiguin), Luzon (Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Palawan, Balabac, Samar, Leyte, Panay, Camiguin de Misamis, and Mindanao. It also occurs in southwestern Asia to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

This is a coarse and widely spreading, woody vine. The stems are 5 or more centimeters thick, and porous. The leaves are alternate, smooth, somewhat rounded, about 20 centimeters wide (those toward the ends of the branchlets being much smaller), heart-shaped at the base, and pointed at the tip. The peduncle grows solitary from each of the upper leaf axils, and is erect and longer than he leaves. The flowers are large, golden-yellow, few to many, or clustered. The sepals are smooth, thick, oblong, and 2 centimeters in length. The corolla has a wide limb.

In the Philippines the stem is sometimes used for tying purposes. Burkill reports that in Malaya the tubers are reputed to be edible, but may cause purging.

The fresh juice from the stem is given in the Philippines as a purgative. Heyne reports that the Sundanese use an extract for stomachache. The juice of the stems is taken for coughs, diarrhea, and worms; and is used for sore eyes. The leaves are used for washing the hair, and are applied as poultices to sore breast, ulcers, and wounds.

 

Bulak-bulakan

THESPESIA LAMPAS (Cav.) Dalz. And Gibs.
Hisbiscus lampas Cav.
Thespesia sublobata Blanco
Azansa lampas Alefeld

Local names: Amagong (Tag.); bulak-bulak (Tag.); bulak-bulakan (Tag.); dadlalupang (Neg.); dalimokan (Bag.); kapas-kapas (Ilk.); marakapas (Ting.); maratarong (Ilk.).

Bulak-bulakan is found in Abra, Lepanto, Bontoc, La Union, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, and Laguna Province in the Island of Luzon; and in Culion, Negros, and Panay in open places, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes. It is also reported from India to tropical Africa, and to Indo-China and Malaya.

This plant is an erect, slightly branched shrub 2 to 3 meters in height. The leaves are ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, somewhat 3-lobed or nearly entire, green and nearly smooth on the upper surface, somewhat hairy beneath, broad and heart-shaped at the base and pointed at the tip. The flowers are large, and borne in threes in the apex of the branches or at the axils of the leaves. The calyx is green, with 5 pointed lobes united below the middle. The corolla is bell-shaped, 6 to 8 centimeters long, yellow, and dark-purple at the center. The capsules are ovoid, and about 3 centimeters long, with 4 or 5 valves.

A weak rope is made from the bast of this plant.

Perkin studied the coloring matter of the yellow petals of this plant and reported that they contain quercetin and protocatechuic acid. Brooks investigating Philippine material confirmed the presence of quercetin as the principal coloring matter of the flowers.

According to Kirtikar and Basu, Chopra, and Nadkarni, the roots and fruits are employed in India as a remedy for gonorrhea and syphilis.

 

Bulak-damo

ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn.
Asclepias syriaca Blanco

Localnames:Anibung (Bon.); balihig (If.); bubuyan (Tag.); bulak-bulakan (Tag.);bulak-damo(Tag.);  bulak-kastila (Tag.); bukitkit (Tag.); kamposde francia (Pang.); koronitas (Bik.); daldal(Iv.)kalalauan (Tag.);kambang-datu (Sub.); kamantiging ligau (Tag.);kapolsabsarong (Tag.); curacao milkweed, blood flower, red-head cotton bush (Engl.); niño muerto, plantanillo, amores de los casados, mal casada, herba de ratan (Sp.).

Bulak-damo is found throughout the Philippines in settled areas, in open waste places, and about settlemants, ascending to at least 1,500 meters. It is a pantropic weed of American origin.

This weed is an erect, simple or slightly branched, smooth, perennial herb 40 to 60 centimeters in height. The leaves are opposite, lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 13 centimeters in length, and pointed at both ends. The inflorescences are umbrella-shaped, and occur in the axils of the leaves or terminate the branches. The flowers are orange-red, and 1.2 to 1.4 centimeters in length. The sepals are linear and green. The corollas are reflexed, oblong, and about 8 millimeters in length. The fruit (follicle) is narrow and pointed at both ends, lanceolate, 6 to 8 centimeters in length, and 1 to 1.3 centimeters in diameter at the middle. It contains numerous, flat seeds to which are attached numerous, long, silky hairs.

Gram found the plant to contain an active principle of a glucosidal character, which he names asclepiadin and which he appears to consider a purer form of the asclepiadin of Harnack and the asclepion of Feneulle. This substance was yellowish, amorphous, and when freshly prepared, very soluble in water; but whether in solution or in a dry state it quickly decomposed; sugar being separated, and the residual compound becoming in proportion insoluble in water, and inert. From an ethereal solution crystals gradually separated out which were apparently identical with List’s asclepione, and quite inactive physiologically. The physiological action of the unaltered asclepiadin was found to closely resemble that of emetin, but in view of the instability of the compound, Dr. Gram doubts whether it can be advantageously introduced into medicine.

Freise reports that the roots contain an active principle, curassavine, which he says id identical in therapeutical value to digitalin. Nothing is known of its chemical composition.

The roots, stem, leaves, and latex are official in the Mexican (2-4) Pharmacopoeia.

Dymock quotes Dr. Guimaraes, who describes the physiological action of A. curassavica, and who found it to act directly upon the organic muscular system, and especially upon the heart and blood vessels, causing great construction of the latter and distension of the larger arteries. Secondarily, it occasioned great dyspnoea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Williams and Webb remark that the toxic principle is a mixture of glucosides of the cardiac type. Webb quotes Chopra, Badhwar and Nayar, who mention that the plant contain vincetoxin, which closely resembles emetine in its physiological action.

In the Philippines Guerrero states that the rootsare employed, both decocted and pulverized, as an emetic, having effects similar to those in its physiological action.

Dymock and de Lanessan report that the plant is employed respectively in the West Indies and Guiana as an emetic. Nadkarni says that the plant is used against dysentery. Bocquillon-Limousin states that in Central America the stem, leaves, and flowers are considered a substitute for sarsaparilla, and are employed as a depurative. The whole plant dried and in powder form, is used as a haemostatic. De Grosourdy writes that in the Antilles the roots and stem, in decoction, are reputed to possess depurative properties, and regarded a good substitute for sarsaparilla in venereal diseases. Martinez remarks that syrup made of the juice of the plants is vermifuge. He quotes Dr. L. H. Chavez, of Mexico, who states that in his investigations by the electronic method, he found in these plant properties, which make it a cure for cancer (index 100) of the stomach, intestines, uterus, and kidneys. He found it effective also against tuberculosis (index of 100), administered in radiations to the lungs.

Freise says that in Brazil an infusion of the roots, with a little sugar, is used against blennorrhagia and leucorrhoea. In large doses, the drug is emetic. Nadkarni states that the roots act as a purgative and subsequently as an astringent. The root is a remedy for piles and gonorrhoea. Bocquillon-Limousin records that in the Antilles the roots and stems are employed in decoction as a purgative and emetic. Martinez remarks that the powdered rootscan be substituted for ipecacuanha as an emetic.

Safford reports that the expressed juice of the leaves is used as a remedy for intestinal worms.

According to Dymock, the juice of the flowers is said to be a good styptic. Burkill says that in Perak, the flowers are bruised in cold water and made into a poultice for headaches.

 

Bulaklak ng paraiso

CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA (Linn) Sw. 
Poinciana Pulcherrima Linn.

Local names: Bulaklak ng Paraiso (Tag.); Caballero (Sp., Tag.); Flor de San Francisco (Sp.); paradise flower, peacock flower, Barbados pride (Engl.).

This is mostly cultivated as an ornamental, throughout the settled areas in the Philippines. In some regions it is naturalized. It was early introduced from tropical America, and is now pantropic in distribution.

This is an erect, smooth shrub or small tree, 1.5 to 5 meters in height. The branches are armed with a few, scattered spines. The leaves are bipinnate. The pinnae, 4 to 8 pairs, are 6 to 12 centimeters long. The leaflets stalkless, 7 to 11 pairs, elliptic, and 1 to 2 centimeters long. The flowers are red and yellow, or yellow, borne on terminal, lax recemes, and about 4 centimeters in diameter. The petals are crisped and clawed. The stamens are long exerted. The pod is nearly straight, flat, smooth, 5 to 9 centimeters long and 1.5 centimeters wide, and contains 6 to 8 seeds.

Martinez quotes Medina, who states that the leaves contain gallic acid, red coloring matter, gum, tannin, resin, benzoic acid, and salts. Holland states that the odor of the plant resembles savin. The pods and leaves are used as a substitute for senna in the East Indies.

The Filipinos do not the therapeutic uses of the plant, except those reported by R. Lete from La Union - that a decoction or infusion of the leaves, flowers, roots, and bark is used as a purgative and emmenagogue.

Holland says that in Angola a decoction of the roots is used for the cure of intermittent fevers. Bocquillon-Limousin and Corre and Lejanne state that the roots are reputed to be poisonous.

In Nicaragua the astringent infusion of the bark is used as a wash for the teeth and gums. Infusions of the leaves, roots, leaves or bark are employed for colds, fevers, and skin diseases, and as a purge, and are said even to induce abortion. They are a powerful emmenagogue also.

According to Martinez and Standley, in Mexico a decoction of the leaves is used for liver affections and as a wash for ulcers of the mouth and throat. In the West Indies this decoction, according to Holland, is used for fevers. In Jamaica it is used for purgatives. In the Antilles the leaves are reputed to have an emmenagogue and even abortive properties. An infusion, sweetened, is purgative.

The flowers are reputed to have purgative, febrifuge, and emmenagogue properties. A decoction is a popular remedy for erysipelas and for inflammation of the eyes. The flowers, in powder, are used as insecticides. They are used also as a tonic.

Hoehne reports that the seeds are used as an effective abortifacient.

Bocquillon-Limousin states that the fruit is astringent, and is employed against diarrhea and dysentery.

 

Bulak-manok

AGERATUM CONYZOIDES Linn.

Local names: Asipukpuk (Pang.); bahu-bahu (Sul.); bahug-bahug (P. Bis.); budbuda (Ig.); bulak-manok (Tag.); damong-pallas (Tag.); kakalding (Bon.); kamumnuag (Iv.); kulong-kogong-babae (Bik.); kolong-kabayo (Tag.); pagpagai (Bon.); siñgilan (Ilk.); taindikaldi (Bon.); billy goat weed, goat weed (Engl.).

Bulak-manok is a common weed in open, waste places throughout the Philippines, from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 meters. It is of American origin, and is now pantropic in distribution.

This weed is an erect, annual, branched, slender, hairy, and aromatic herb 15 to 60 centimeters in height. The leaves are stalked, ovate, 4 to 11 centimeters long, and 1 to 5 centimeters wide, with the tip and base somewhat pointed, and with round-toothed margins. The flowering heads are numerous, small, about 5 millimeters across, and borne in dense terminal corymbs. The ray-flowers are many, and pale blue or white. The fruit (achene) is black. There are five pappus scales which are awned and often toothed below.

Wehmer records that the leaves yield a volatile oil, 0.00054 per cent, which contains sesquiterpenene. Safford says that the plant yield a vegetable proximate principle known as “coumarin”, which is also found in the allied genus, Eupatorium. Burkill states that at the Imperial Institute, a very small amount of an alkaloid was detected in its tissues.

In the Philippines the juice of the fresh leaves is widely used as vulnerary. Sometimes the leaves are cooked in coconut oil and the medicated oil applied to wounds. Guerrero states that the leaves, pounded and mixed with salt, are a very effective vulnerary. The stem, roots, and flowers of this plant are boiled and the resulting fluid used for stomach trouble.

According to Caius the plant is a household medicine in Madagascar, Mauritius, and La reunion. It is used in Togoland to cure fever. In Yoruba a decoction is given for fever internally. Freise reports that in Brazil the plant is used as stimulant tonic, an emmenagogue, a diuretic, and a carminative. An infusion or decoction of the plant is given in diarrhea, intestinal colic with flatulence, rheumatism, and vesical catarrh. Dymock says that the whole plant has a reputation among the Hindus as an external application in agues. The juice is also said to be a good remedy for prolapsus ani; it is freely applied, and the parts replaced. Burkill and Haniff sate that a decoction of the plant is given for fever and dysentery among the Malays. Bartlett reports the same treatment for fever in Sumatra.

Caius adds that the juice of the root is said to possess antidysenteric properties and, together with the leaves, is a common Indo-Chinese remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. The juice of the root is. Moreover, credited with the virtue of preventing the formation of stone or calculus in the bladder. A cold decoction of the roots is used as a lotion in purulent ophthalmia. Heyne states that in Java a paste of the roots is rubbed on the body for fever.

Caius continues that in Ceylon the leaves are commonly applied to wounds and sores; they act as a styptic and heal them quickly. In the Gold Coast Colony the leaves are squeezed, and the juices is used as a lotion for the eyes. In Sierra Leone the chief use of the leaves is a remedy for craw-craw; they are also applied to chronic ulcers, and used intra-vaginally for uterine-troubles; crushed in water they are given as an emetic. In Southern Nigeria a decoction is both used as lotion for craw-craw and taken internally for fever. In Siberia pneumonia in children is treated by rubbing an extract of the leaves on the chest. In South Cameroons the leaves pounded with Ocimum and macerated in water along with “bush pepper,” are prepared as a purgative enema. Some tribes in Portuguese Congo use them in the treatment of sleeping sickness. As a fomentation, the leaves and the stems are used in skin diseases, more particularly leprosy; and they are prescribed as a bath to patients with ecchymoses. A poultice of the leaves is applied to boils; it is said to prevent tetanus if applied to a wound. Burkill says that the Malays poultice wounds externally with the leaves, which have been heated and oiled. Heyne reports that in Java the leaves, in the from of a paste mixed with chalk, are used for wounds. Crevost and Petelot say that the Annamites apply the leaves to the hair.

 

Bulobankal

NAUCLEA JUNGHUHNII (Miq.) Merr.
Sarcocephalus horsfieldii Elm.
Sarcocephalus junghuhnii Miq.

Local names: Bangkal (Tag.,S.L.Bis.); bulobankal (P.Bis.); kabak (S.L.Bis.);  kalamansanai (Sul.); magalablab (Bag.); mambog (Bik.); mamuloko (Bag.); nato (Ibn., Lan.); sapauan (Mand.); tiroron (Bik.);southern bangkal (Engl.).

Bulobankal is found in primary forests at low altitudes in Isabela, Quezon, Zambales, Camarines, Sorsogon, and Albay Provinces in Luzon; and in Masbate; Leyte; Negros and Mindanao. It also occurs in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo.

This tree reaches a height of 25 meters and a diameter of 50 centimeters. The leaves are leathery, ovate, 8 to 20 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, rounded or pointed at the base, and borne on petioles about 2 centimeters long. The flowers are yellow and occur in rounded heads. The lower parts of the flowers, including the ovaries, are united to form a sort of ball from which the corollas project like pins from a pincushion. The corolla falls off and the ball enlarges and becomes the fruit. The fruit is fleshy, brown, pitted on the surface, rounded, and about 2 centimeters in diameter.

Guerrero states that a decoction of the bark is used in the Philippines in connection with menstruation.

 

Buñga

ARECA CATECHU Linn.
Areca alba “Rumph.”

Local names:  Boá (Ilk., It., Ibn.); buá (Ibn.); búñga (Tag., Bis., Sul.); dapiau (Iv.); huá (It.); lúgos (Sul.); lúyos (Pamp.); pasa (Yak.); takobtob (Bik.); vuá (Ibn.); va (It.); areca nutbetel-nut palm (Engl.).

Buñga is often cultivated throughout settled areas of the Philippines, in some places being spontaneous.  Possibly it is a native of the Philippines, having been found once, spontaneous, in primary forests in Palawan.  It also occurs in the Old World Tropics generally, and has been introduced into the New World.

The trunk is erect, and solitary, up to 25 meters high, and marked with annular scars.  The leaves are up to 4 meters long, with numerous leaflets, 60 to 90 centimeters long, with the upper ones confluent.  The spadix is much branched and compressed, with the branches filiform above, bearing very numerous, somewhat distichous male flowers, which are yellow, and about 5 millimeters long.   The female flowers are at the bases of the branches and in axils, about 1 centimeters long or more.  The fruit is ovoid, smooth, orange or red (when ripe), 4 to 6 centimeters long; with the pericarp somewhat fleshy, and the mesocarp fibrous.   

The ubod, or cabbage, is edible, and is either eaten raw as a salad or cooked.

According to Chopra the first chemical analysis of the seed was performed in 1886 by Bombelon, who isolated a liquid volatile alkaloid to which the name arecaine was given.  Later, other alkaloids were isolated, the proportions of these in the seeds being arecaine 0.1 percent and arecoline 0.07 to 0.1 percent; arecaidine, guvacoline, guvacine and chlorine occur only in traces.  Arecolidine is another alkaloid obtained by Emde. [Apth. Zeit. 30 (1915) 240; Chem. Soc. Abst. I (1915) 21.]  Besides these constituents the seed contains 15 percent of tannin and 14 percent of fat.

Baens analyzed Philippines betel nuts and reported that tannin is located is located almost entirely in the kernel; the husk contains only traces.  She said that as the green nuts ripen, the amount of tannin in the kernel decreases.  Analyses of full grown betel nuts (kernel) varied from 12.98 to 26.89 percent.

Nadkarni adds that the kernel has garlic acid and a gum.  The most important of all the alkaloids and the one, which had anthelmintic properties, is arecoline (C8H13NO2).  Arecoline is a colorless, oily liquid with boiling point of 2300C., and forms crystalline salts with acids.

The nut is official in the British (2s); French (3); German (3-5); Swiss (4) Pharmacopoeias; the extract, in the Danish (3); French (3); and Swedish (1) Pharmacopoeias. Arecoline hydrobromide is official in some pharmacopoeias.

In the Philippines, as well as in indo-Malayan and Polynesian regions, the Areca nut is extensively used for chewing with lime and the leaves of betel piper (Piper betle Linn.), which is locally known as ikmo.  In the Philippines the buyo is generally regarded as a tonic and a general stimulant, but its excessive use is certainly harmful.  The fruit in decoction is considered an abortifacient and the nut as an emmenagogue. Tavera reports that excessive use of buyo causes loss of appetite, salivation, and general degeneration of the organism.  According to Guerrero the tender seeds are said to be purgative and the ripened ones grated are vermifuge.  They are also used externally as an astringent.

Nadkarni reports that the fresh nut is somewhat intoxicating and produces giddiness in some persons.  This was noted by Garcia da Orta as early as 1563 in Malacca.  The dried nut is stimulant, astringent, and taenifuge.  It increases the flow of saliva; sweetens the breath, strengthens the gum, and produces mild exhilaration.  Chopra adds that the arecoline is a highly toxic substance, and that its pharmacological action resembles that of muscarine, pelletierine, and pilocarpine.  It violently stimulates the peristaltic movements of the intestines and produces a marked constriction of the bronchial muscles, which can, however, be overcome by adrenaline or atropine.  The terminations of the vagi in the heart are stimulated and the organ is depressed; the blood pressure falls.  It is a powerful sialogogue and stimulates the secretion of sweat in the same way as pilocarpine.

As a masticatory, dentifrice, and vermifuge, Gimlette states that the betel nut appeared in the Materia Medica of ancient China.  It is also thus used in Indo-Chine according to Bocquillon-Limousin and in the Punjab and Cashmere by Honigberger.  Nadkarni reports that the kernel of the fruit is one of the constituents of that general masticatory of the East-the “betel” or the pan.  The young nut is useful in bowel complaints. The tincture forms an astringent gargle, when freely diluted with water, which is useful for bleeding gums, and it may be used as an injection for stopping water discharges from the vagina; it is also useful in checking the pyrosis of pregnancy of pregnancy.

Gimlette also reports that women in Malaya use the young green shoots as an abortifacient in early pregnancy.  Large doses of areca nut cause vomiting and diarrhea.  In the Dutch East Indies the root (shredded, steeped in water, and pounded till the juice is extracted) is used as poison put into food or drink.

The presence of tannic and gallic acids in the young nuts gives them decided astringent properties.  The burned and powdered nuts make an excellent dentifrice.  According to Sanyal and Ghose the juice of the young leaves mixed with oil is used externally for lumbago in India.  It has been found useful in urinary disorders, and is reported to possess aphrodisiac properties.  The powdered nuts have also long been in favor as an anthelmintic in man and animals, and are efficacious in promoting the expulsion of tapeworms from human subjects and in combating round worms.  The nut is regarded also as a nervine tonic and emmenagogue.  As an anthelmintic the areca nut has been used in India and China from time immemorial.

Stuart records that in China the bark is used for choleraic affections, and for flatulent, dropsical, and obstructive disease diseases of the digestive tract.  According to Dr. Warning chronic ulcerations, attended by much or foetid discharge, often speedily improve under the use of an ointment composed of finely powdered catechu and lard.  MacMillan also reports its use externally for ulcers.

 

Buñga-buñga

 

 

 

Bungbungtit

ETHULIA CONYZOIDES Linn.

Local names:  Bungbungtit (It.).

Bungbungtit is found in thickets, in stream depressions, and in the mossy forest at an altitude of from 1,300 to 2,300 meters in Lepanto and Benguet Subprovinces in Luzon.  It also occurs in India to eastern Africa and to Malaya.

This herb is erect, smooth or somewhat hairy, leafy, and 30 to 120 centimeters in height.  The leaves are narrowly or broadly elliptic-lanceolate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, glandular-dotted, and toothed in the margins.  The flowering heads are very numerous, 4 to 6 millimeter in diameter, and peduncled, with purplish or reddish flowers.

According to Caius, in Liberia the juice is squeezed into the eyes for headache; the root along with red pepper, is given by enema for constipation; and the leaves are eaten by pregnant woman to prevent abortion.  The Zulus use the plant as a remedy for intestinal parasites, for abdominal disorders, and for colic.  An infusion of the plant is used in Madagascar for dysentery, haemoptysis and bruises.  He pounded leaves are applied over sprains and fractures; the boiled leaves are used for wounds and traumatic hemorrhages.  The Betsileo use it in the treatment of scabies.

 

Buntot pusa

DYSOPYLLA AURICULARIA (Linn.) Blume  
Mentha auricularia Linn.
Mentha foetida Burm. f.

Local names:  Buntot pusa (Tag.)

Buntot pusa is locally abundant in open, wet places at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.  It also occurs in India to southern China and Malaya.

This annual, hairy is 30 to 60 centimeters in height.  The leaves are oblong, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, stalkless or short-stalked, and acute or blunt at the tip.  The flowers are small, borne in whorls or hairy spikes.  The calyx is very small, and 5 to 7.5 millimeters long, with triangular teeth; it enlarges in fruit.  The corolla is usually pink, with slender tube and hairy lobes.  The nutlets are ellipsoid, and nearly smooth.

According to Burkill and Haniff buntot pusa is one of the chief plants used by the village Malays for treating simple disturbances of the stomach in children.  The plant is pounded alone, or with lime, and the paste applied as a poultice on the abdomen.  Poulticing is recorded, also, for worms, kidney trouble, sorethroat, headache, and diarrhoea.  Heyne quotes a statement by Rumpf to the effect Javanese eat the leaves for stomach trouble, but he adds that statement requires corroboration.

 

Buol

XIMENIA AMERICANA Linn.
Zizyphus littorea Teysm.

Local names: Buol (Bag.); meal (Bik.); pangungan (Yak.); paniungan (Sul.); sulo-sulo (Bag.); sour plum, wild plum, wild olive, wild lime, mountain plume, seaside plum, citron of sea (Engl.).

Buol is found in thickets immediately back of the beach along the seashore in Quezon Province, Luzon, and in Palawan, Biliran, Mindanao, and the Sulu Archipelago. It is a pantropic strand plant.

This is a spiny shrub or small tree growing up to 6 meters in height. The bark is smooth and reddish. The leaves are alternate, oblong or elliptical, 3 to 7 centimeters long, pale beneath, and with rounded apex. The flowers are yellowish-white, fragrant, and less than a centimeter in length. The fruit is yellow, somewhat rounded, and 1.5 to 3 centimeters in diameter, and contains one large seed.

According to Standley the bark is astringent, and the fruit has a peculiar odor, and acid flavor. The fruit has purgative properties. He quotes Grosourdy, who states that a syrup made from it is used in the West Indies for dropsy, rheumatism, etc.

Brown says that the fruit tastes like sour apples, and is eaten either fresh or pickled. The nuts are purgative. Heyne reports that when the seeds are cooked and powdered, they are mixed with sago to make bread. Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk record that in the Tranvaal the natives use the fruit for making beer, and the oily kernels, for softening leather. The kernels yield a yellow, semidrying oil, which is edible, though it is pungent. They quote Ernst [Arch. Pharm. (1867) 222], who states that the kernels are purgative and poisonous, and yield hydrocyanic acid; but subsequent investigation of the leaves and kernels shows no sign of cyanogenetic glucoside. The kernels also contain no alkaloids.

 

Buri

CORYPHA ELATA Roxb.
Corypha umbraculifera   Blanco
Corypha sylvestris  Mart.
Sagus rumphii  Perr.
Livistona vidalii  Becc.

Localnames: Bagátai (Is.); buri (Bis.,Bik.,Pamp.,Tag.); busi (Pamp.,Bis.,Tag.); ibus  (Tag.);  piét (Tag., Pang.); silad (Bik.); silag ( Ilk., Pang.);  Silat ( Sub.);  sirar  (Bag.); Takták (Is.).

The buri palm is found throughout the Philippines, in most island and provinces, being in some regions widely scattered and in others subgregarious and abundant at low and medium altitudes. It also occurs in India to Malaya.

The buri palm is the most stately and largest palm of the Philippines. The trunk is erect, straight, up to1 meter in diameter and 20 meter high. The leaves are fan-shaped, large, rounded in outline, up to 3 meters in length, and palmately split into about 100, lanceolate, 1.5 to 6 centimeter wide, segments extending one-haft to two-thirds to the base; the petioles are very stout. Up to 3 meter long, 20 centimeters thick at the base, and their margins armed with very stout black spines. The inflorescence is pyramidal, up to 7 meters in height, the lower branches up to 3.5 meters long, the upper gradually shorter, the ultimate branches up to1 meter in the length. The flower are numerous, greenish-white, and 5 to 6 millimeter in diameter. The fruits are globose, fleshy, 2 to 2.5 centimeter in diameter, and the seeds are hard, and about 1.5 Centimeters in diameter.

The uses of the buri palm are summarized by Brown as follows:

It produces a fermented drink  (tuba), alcohol, vinegar, syrup, and sugar. The trunk yields large quantities of starch. The bud (ubod) is used for salad or as a vegetable. The kernels of the young fruits are edible and are made into a sweetmeats. The mature seeds are used for beads  (rosaries) and buttons. The petiole yields so-called buntal fiber of which, the famous Baliuag and Lacban hats are made, or which, when crudely extracted, is sometimes twisted into rope.  Mature leaf is used for covering tobacco bales, rarely as a thatch for houses, while the ribs are used for making brooms. From the unopened leaf is obtained a very fine fiber, corresponding to raffia fiber, which is utilized in making cloth, fancy articles, and as string. Fibers secured from the ribs of the unopened leaves are extensively used in the manufacture of the so-called Calasiao or Pototan hats. Strips of the unopened leaf are made into hats, mats, bags, sails, basket, and other articles.

Medicinally the buri palm is not as useful as the coconut. Guerrero reports that the young plants are brewed in decoction and administered in case of febrile catarrh. Burkill says that in Malaya the starch is recommended for bowel complaint, and the juice of the roots for diarrhea. Heyne states that the roots are chewed in Celebes for coughs.

 

Buringit

CLAUSENA EXCAVATA Burm. f.

Local names: Buringit (Tagb.)

Buringit is found in thickets and old clearings of low altitudes in Mindoro, Culion, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago. It also occurs in India to Indo-China and Malaya.

This is small tree, covered with soft hairs all over. The leaves are 15 to 30 centimeters long, fetid when crushed, with 15 to 30 leaflets, which are 5 to 9 centimeters long. The flowers are 4-parted, shortly stalked, and white, and are borne on pyramidal panicles 10 to 30 centimeters in length. The fruit is broadly oblong, about 2 centimeters in length.

The Filipinos do not know of any medicinal use for this plant. We owe our knowledge of its virtues to the Malays and Javanese.

Burkill reports that among the Malays the plant has some medicinal use. A decoction of the roots for drunk for bowel complaints, chiefly colic. The pounded root is used as a poultice for sores, including ulceration of the nose. The leaves are used also for poulticing, and may be pounded and applied to the head for headaches. He quotes Gimlette, who pound the root used in Kelantan for yaws.

Ridley states that ulceration of the nose may be treated by fumigation from burning leaves and bark.

Burkill adds that flowers and leaves may e boiled, and the decoction taken for colic; and that a decoction of the leaves is given after childbirth. Heyne says that the expressed juice of the plant is used in Java for coughs, and as a vermifuge.

 

Busbusi

LIPPIA NODIFLORA (Linn.) Rich. 
Verbena capitata Forsk.
Verbena nodiflora Linn.

Local names: Busbusi (Ilk.); chachahan (Tag.); lopulupu (P. Bis.); nakulad (Iv.); sirik puyo (Bis.).

Busbusi is found throughout the Philippines as a common weed in open, waste places at low and medium altitudes. It is pantropic in distribution.

This plant is a creeping, minutely strigose herb. The stems, extending from 15 to 30 centimeters, are much branched and root at the nodes. The leaves are numerous, nearly without stalks, obovate, and 1 to 2.5 centimeters long, with blunt or rounded tip and wedge-shaped base; the margins on the upper half are sharply toothed. The flowers are small, pink or white, crowded in ovoid or cylindric spikes, 1 to 2.5 centimeters long, and about 3 millimeters long, consists of a slender, cylindric tube and a limb 2.5 millimeters wide or less. It opens at the apex, as it lengthens. The spikes appear at the ends of stalks which grow singly from the axils of the leaves.

Tavera reports that the Filipinos drink an infusion of the leaves in place of tea; hence, the long Tagalog name, “chachahan,” meaning resembling tea. Guerrero states that an infusion of the leaves and tops is employed by the Filipinos as a carminative and a diuretic.

According to Dymock the plant is used in Bombay as a demulcent in gonorrhea. He quotes Ainsile, who observes the following: “The tender stalks and leaves, which are in a slight degree bitter, the native practitioners prescribe, when toasted, in infusion, in cases of children’s indigestions, to the extent of two ounces twice daily; it is also sometimes ordered as a drink for women after lying in.

Dymock, Warden, and Hooper report that Lippa nodiflora is considered by the Hindus to be febrifuge and diuretic.  It is applied locally in the form of a promote suppuration.  They state that an infusion is useful in the febrile stage of colds, and that it is diuretic and useful in lithiasis.  A poultice composed of the fresh plant is a good maturant for boils Nadkarni adds that a paste or poultice of the plant is applied to swollen cervical glands, to erysipelas, and to chronic indolent ulcers.

 

Buta-buta

EXCOECARIA AGALLOCHA Linn

Localnames: Alipata (P.Bis.); batano (Ilk,Pang.); bota-bota (Tag.,Bis.); buta (Tag.); buta-buta (Tag.,Pam., Sul.); dipodata (C.Bis.); gumaingat (Bag.); himbabau (Pamp.,Bis.); iingi (Sbl.); lipata (Bik.,Bis.,Tag.);  lipatang-buhai (Tag., Sul.); siak (Bis.); blinding treemilky mangrove (Eng.).

Buta-buta is found along the seashore or in any place reached by salt or brackish water throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Polynesia.

The plant is a tree, usually not more than 8 meters in height. The leaves are alternate, shiny, pointed at the tip and somewhat rounded at the base, elliptic-ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate, and 6 to 12 centimeters long. The flowers are very small and are densely crowded on slender, flowering branches. The male flowers occur on spikes which grow singly on axils of the leaves and are from 5 to 10 centimeters long. The female lowers are borne on branches which are 2 to 3 centimeters long. There are three sepals with a basal gland within, no petals, and three stamens. The fruit which is somewhat rounded, smooth, and about 5 millimeters in diameter is composed of three sections.

The milky juice from the tree is very caustic and poisonous, being said to cause blindness when it touches the eyes, and to blister the skin. This is also the verdict of the Malays, the Javanese, and the Hindus. According to Guerrero, the latex is used in healing obstinate ulcers.

Gimlette mentions the use of smoke from the burning wood for treatment of leprosy in Fiji. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper report that the juice is used in Australia and New Guinea to cure ulcers and leprosy. A decoction of the leaves is given in epilepsy and is also applied to ulcers.

Burkill states that the roots seem less poisonous than the above-ground parts, as, pounded with ginger, they may be serve to make an embrocation for swellings on hands and feet.

Ridley quoting Dr. Lewin, tells us that this plant is used in the composition of arrow poison. It is probably used only as an irritant to increase the rapidity of action.

Burkill asserts that the sap from the bark may cause blindness, and produces blisters on the skin. The latex is used as a fish poison in New Caledonia. He says also that the latex is an adjunct to Antiaris sap in making dart-poison. Gimlette records the criminal use of the sap from the trunk, including poisoning of water by means of the dried and powdered leaves.

 

Butuan

MUSA EREANS (Blanco) Teodoro var. BOTOAN Teodoro
Musa troyladytarum Blanco

Local names: Baldiang (Ilk.); butuan (Tag.); butuhan (Tag.); saging butuan (Tag.); vullungan (Ibn., It.).

Butuan is an endemic form of wild banana. It grows spontaneously in most parts of the Philippines.

The plant sends out suckers from the base, growing to a height of from 3 to 3.8 meters. The false trunk is erect and cylindric, and 20 to 30 centimeters in diameter. The leaves are elliptic in shape, the mature blades being 1.5 to 2 meters long and 40 to 50 centimeters wide. The petioles reach a length of from 50 to 65 centimeters. The female fertile flowers appear toward the base, and the sterile staminate flowers, toward the apex. The fruits are oblong, somewhat angled, about 15 centimeters long, and 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter. The pulp is white, insipid or sour in taste. The seeds are hard and black.

The young inflorescence (puso) is extensively used as food and is very commonly sold in the markets. When boiled it makes an excellent vegetable or, served with dressing, an excellent salad. From the ripe fruits vinegar is made.

Analyses of young inflorescences show that they are good sources of phosphorus, calcium, and iron.

The young unfolded leaves are used as topicals for short pains. Internally the juice of the corms is given to tubercular patients. Guerrero adds that the sap is vulnerary, and that the sap exuding from the base of the cut trunk is used for urethral injections in gonorrhoea.

 

Buyo-buyo

PIPER ABBREVIATUM Opiz
Piper chaba Blume
Chavica chaba Miq.
Piper rhombophyllum C. DC.
Chavica populifolia Miq.
Piper rhombifolium F.-Vill.
Piper miquelinum F.-Vill.
Piper rubripunctulatum C. DC.
Piper parvispica C. DC.
Piper mearnsii C.DC.

Local names:  Alapapan (Mbo.); bagaybajon (Mbo.); buyo-buyo (Bik.); buyo-halo (P. Bis.); guto-guti (Bik.); halopai (Mbo.); kaligu-uan (Lan.); laingan (Sub.); lawigang (Tag.); lingolingo-daytei (Bis.); manikatapai (Bag.); samaina (Mbo.); tandauon (Mbo.).

Buyo-buyo is found in forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.  It also occurs in Borneo and Java.

This is a dioecious vine, the branches being smooth, terete, and 1.5 to 3 millimeters in diameters in diameter.  The leaves are membranous to chartaceous, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic-oblong or rounded-elliptic, 4 to 14 centimeters long, 1.5 to 6.7 centimeters wide, usually 5-plinerved, and rarely 3-plinered or 7-plinered.  The pistillate spikes are abbreviated, oblong to globose-ovoid, 7 to 20 millimeters long, and 7.5 to 11 millimeters in diameter, with the smooth peduncles 0.8 to 2 centimeters long.  The rachis is hirsute.  The bracts are sessile, peltate with the disk smooth, transversely subelliptic to obovate, 0.5 to 0.8 millimeter wide. The fruits are crowded, coalescing full embedded in and concrescent with the rachis, oblanceolateo obovoid, about 3 millimeters long, angled, smooth, and umbonate apex.  The stigmas number 3 to 4, and are ovoid, sessile, an apical.  The seeds are obovoid, oblong-obovoid, or oblanceolate 2 to 2.5 millimeters long.  The staminate spikes are slends 2.2 to 5.7 centimeters long, 1.5 to 3 millimeters in diameter the bracts subsessile, peltate, 0.5 to 0.6 millimeter long distransversely subelliptic, smooth, 0.5 millimeters wide. The stamens 2, pedicellate, 0.6 to 1 millimeter long; the anthers reniform to subglobose, 2-valved; the filaments slightly longer than the anthers, somewhat exserted.

According to Chopra, the fruits are aromatic, stimulant, and carminative, and are used in coughs and colds.

 

Buyok-buyok

HETEROSTEMMA CUSPIDATUM Decne.
Stapelia quadragula Blanco
Heterostemma manilense Schauer

Local names: Biniguasan (Tag.); buyok-buyok (Tag.); San Bartolome (Tag.).

Buyok-buyok is found only in the Philippines. It occurs in secondary forest and thickets at low altitudes in Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Busuanga.

This plant is slender vine with milky juice and twigs 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter. The old stems are remarkable for their corky wings or ridges. The leaves are smooth, thin, ovate, 6.5 to 17 centimeters long, 3.5 to 10 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip and rounded or somewhat heat-shaped at the base. The flowers are purplish, hairy, about 8 millimeters across, and on slender stalks 1.5 to 2 centimeters long. The corolla segments are broadly ovate, leathery, and horizontally spreading. The follicles are in pairs, smooth, and linear, being 10 to 14 centimeters long. The seeds are flat, concave-convex, oblong, and about 1.3 centimeters long, with numerous, silky, white coma.

According to Dr. Faustino Garcia, formerly pharmacologist of the Institute of science, an ointment from the leaves of this plant is an effective remedy for tropical ulcers. It acts as an antiseptic. The active principle is unknown.

 

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